MACKENZIE FAMILY VIGNETTES
The intent here is to give the reader a sense of the family. I have selected a few ancient names to illustrate the historical background of people who were direct antecedents. Mackenzie power evaporated with the end of the Stewart kings and so much of this seems strictly historical. This list is not exclusive and a full database is linked at this site. I use the term grandparent below and throughout this site to indicate a direct blood relationship, rather than a separation of two generations. This is intended for my family and I have deliberately aimed at their parochial interest, rather than at academic, or historical interests.
Aed Findliath MacNeill Caille, King of Ireland & Ailech. Aed (White Hair) was born c829 and married Princess Mael Muire, daughter of Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Scots. A great victory was gained by Aedh, son of Niall, in 854 over the Gall Gaeidheala, in Gleann Fhoichle, where he made a slaughter of them. The plundering and devastation of Meath by Aedh Finnliath, the son of Niall Caille in 859. Aedh Finnliath, son of Niall Caille, and Flann, son of Conang, went with the lord of the foreigners to plunder Meath, and committed great depredations there in 860. Aed acceded to the kingdom of Ireland as Ard Ri (High King), the 168th monarch of Ireland, in 862. Mael Muire is related to us through Edith Matilda, who married Henry I, of England, and David I, of Scots and the Huntingdons. Aed Findliath is also an uncle. and some of his descendants married FitzGeralds. You will notice that he was both king of Ireland and Ailech. Ailech/Aileach was a kingdom in the north-west of Ireland. Donegal, the location of the circular stone-age fortress (or Grianán), was a seat of those Ailech kings. The fortress was an historical centre of culture and politics during the rule of early Irish chieftains (c800 BC-1200 AD).@@@
Alan Moore Mackenzie, Captain. Alan graduated from McMaster University, played baseball with fellow student Prime Minister Lester Pearson and entered the Toronto stock market with Matthews Company. He made a lot of money and drove a Rolls Royce before the 1920s crash. A quiet, athletic man he wanted to teach history and was selected as a Rhodes Scholar. Alan became a hell-raiser, married and divorced Nora Kathleen Hammond, joined the Canadian Army, remarried to my mother Betty Willison and then was sent to England and WWII in 1941. During the war, Alan spent most of his time in England until D-Day when he moved with his battalion to France and Germany. He earned his battalion’s affection by trading a bottle of ‘booze’ to the Yanks for some Christmas turkeys in 1944. I met my father for the first time in 1946 at the Central train station in New York. My father is the author of my genealogical interests, having been confronted by the intimidating Granny Willison about his suitability to marry into her illustrious family. His said ...'she might indeed have been related to God (no doubt a poor cousin), but that he had several Scottish titles, being the Baronet of Coul with a claim to the Earldom of Seaforth...' Out-bluffed, Granny succumbed and my parent's marriage was announced.
After WWII Alan bought land from his Murray's, Armstrong in-laws and sold plumbing to post-war Europe. Two of my father Alan’s great pals were Rusty Cumberland (a WWII Royal Regiment of Canada fellow officer) and Tupper Bigalow (a magistrate and Toronto Woodbine Racing Commissioner). He and his brother Murray enjoyed life together in Oakville and our Mackenzie, Moore and Willison families became quite friendly. Alan took us Mackenzies, the Hotzes, and my Willison cousin Toni to the Toronto summer area of the Georgian Bay. Alan loved fishing in the Ontario lakes and rivers, and fished with me in New Brunswick. He moved to Halifax and finally died of a heart attack in Ottawa. Oakville lies between Toronto and Hamilton on the shore of Lake Ontario. Murray and Mildred had a bungalow house with an apple orchard and woods, comprising about five acres in all. Murray had bought this and the adjacent land, which he sold to my father, from his Armstrong in-laws who had settled the area. While Alan was in Europe during WWII, my mother, Betty, evidently took both my cousins and me to Oakville, The land at Oakville is rich and big trees and orchards shaded the property. Murray’s abandoned chicken house in the back provided a place for children’s games. My cousins Mary Helen and Janet later taught me to dance there.
Alexander Mackenzie, VI Baronet of Coul, Major General. His father, also Alexander, married a daughter of the powerful Sir James Macdonald of Sleat, and regained a Crown charter for Coul in 1742. This helped recover from the family setback after the Earl of Seaforth and the Mackenzies lost in the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. This Sir Alex joined the Honourable East India Company Service (HEICS) Army, retiring a major general. He probably served with General Lord Robert Clive, seizing Bengal from the last Mughal Emperors in 1765. He was the Bengali provincial Commander-in-Chief (1790-92) when he succeeded to the baronetcy. He fathered Sir George Steuart Mackenzie.
Alexander Mackenzie, VII Baron of Kintail. In 1427, Alexander attended the Scottish Parliament of King James I. James apparently liked him and sent him to school at Perth. Alexander later defended the same king against a MacDonald uprising. From 1463 to 1476, lands were given to Alexander; his son, Kenneth, was critical to the battle of Lochalsh and his grandson John was a shrewd land-buyer. New lands were acquired from 1528 to 1542 and the Barony of Kintail was 'erected' in 1509. Alexander’s successors married daughters of Lord Lovat, Grant of Grant, Earl of Athol, and a niece of the Earl of Argyll.
Alexander Mackenzie, VIII Baronet of Coul, Major. After his father had spent most of the family fortune and with the Jacobite cause lost, Sir Alex followed his grandfather and also joined the East India Company. In 1825, while in the Bengali infantry, he was at the siege of Bhurtpore and the battle of Maharajpore, where his horse was killed under him. He took part in the first Indian Sutlej campaign to limit Sikh power in northern India in 1846-47. At the beginning of the British Raj (the direct rule of India by Britain and the end of Company control), he was the Indian Army Deputy Judge Advocate General in Gwalior. Gwalior was one of the 1857 Indian Army Mutiny locales where inflamed troops rioted in June, over the issue of British control and triggered by rumoured pig (or cow) fat on the soldiers’ cartridges which they had to bite to prime their weapons. This offended both Hindu and Muslim religious beliefs. Sir Alex retired to the East Indies, dying at Coul.
Alfred the Great, King of the West Saxons and England. Alfred was born in 848 at Wantage Manor, Dorset, England. He was educated as a priest, built a navy to defend southern Anglo-Saxon England from Viking raids, formulated a code of laws, and fostered a rebirth of religious and scholarly activity. His reign exhibits military skill, innovation, sound governance, the ability to inspire men and plan for the future, piety and a practical commitment to the support of religion, personal scholarship and the promotion of education. We are related to Alfred several times over, via Henry I, of England, the FitzGeralds, and Lady Margaret Stewart. Also descended from Alfred are: Louis VI, Henri I, and Philip I all kings of France; and king David I, of the Scots.
Brian Boruma macCennetig, King of Ireland. Brian Boruma macCennetig is one of the most revered figures in Irish history. He is credited with driving out the Vikings and is the only king to have ruled over all Ireland. In 960 Brian acceded as King of Thomond; his brother Mahoun became King of Munster. Mahoun wanted to trade with the Vikings, Brian, however, confronted Mahoun for trying to settle with the invaders. Mahoun listened to the argument, changed his mind and put Brian in charge of the army. This led to a victory and a chance for Brian to demonstrate his brilliant military strategy. Before going to war against the Danes of Limerick, he selected the best fighters, organized his army and defeated the Vikings. When the Danes killed Mahoun and Brian became king and took his army along the coast. Boruma coordinated land and naval attacks and secured the coastal islands. Brian confronted the Danes at Tara, besieging Dublin in 999. In 1002, Brian was crowned Ard Righ, High King, of Ireland. Three years later he led a victory march, confronting the powerful Ulster kings, into Armagh at the head of an army from Meath, Leinster, Connacht and Viking Dublin. But Dublin and Leinster joined forces with the Norse and he was defeated on 23 April 1014, at the Battle of Clontarf, just north of Dublin. Without Boru, Ireland was never again united. Brian is related to us via Fynvola Macleod, of Harris, who married Murdoch Mackenzie, VI Baron of Kintail.
Cassivelaunus, King of the Britons and Catuvellauni. The Catuvellauni were a powerful Gallic tribe, who settled north of the Thames. Caesar's Roman expedition of 54 BC moved into southeast Britain via the Thames Valley. Cassivellaunus, who was the capable local warrior-king reigned from 58 to 38 BC and had just been appointed King of Britons. He led the southern Britons, effectively harassing and withstanding the Romans. Caesar struck a deal with the Trinovantes (tribal enemies of Cassivellaunus), and the Trinovantes' subsequent desertion with other tribes finally guaranteed temporary Roman victory. The Celtic confederacy under Cassivellaunus was pursued and eventually forced to surrender and pay tribute. Cassivellaunus had been betrayed by his nephew, Androgeus, Duke of Kent, and was starved into submission. In spite of this submission, Caesar retired in the face of fierce British resistance. Caesar pulled his legions out in September due to the mounting pressures of Gallic rebellion. Ambiorix, led the Continental Belgic tribes and defeated a Roman Legion. Ambiorix in turn was defeated in 53 BC, but Vercingetorix led another revolt. Nesta Tewdwr Mawr is Cassivellaunus’ granddaughter (several times removed).
Charlemagne, King of the Franks and Germany, and Holy Roman Emperor. A son of Pepin III, King of the Franks (called the Short), Charlemagne was born in 715 at Paris and died at St Denis on September 24, 768. We are related via his son Pepin I, king of Italy; and also by William Longsword, II Duke of Normandy, an ancestor of William, the Conqueror. William Longsword married Sprota Adela of Senlis one of Charlemagne’s granddaughters. Charlemagne’s principal biographer was the monk Einhard, who was both advisor and secretary. Einhard wrote the excerpt below in 814. Charles was called the Great, because of his successful long reign, and the tremendous impact he had in peace, the spread of Christianity, education, law, his innovations in military warfare – such as the use of heavy cavalry. Charlemagne created his capital at Aachen, Germany and gave stability to Europe. His cathedral in Aachen is still in operation and houses a museum.
Coel Hen, King Of Northern Britain. Born in 320, he married Stradwawl verch Gadeon and as their names hint they were both Celts. The Roman capital of northern Britain was at Eboracum, or York. This was also the capital of the Brigantian Britons who, as pre-Roman Celts had ruled northern England. Archaeological data indicates a period of rebuilding in York c400, when Coel Hen ruled, but Coel Hen’s kingdom covered from a line close to the Humber to Hadrian's Wall. Probably appointed by Magnus Maximus, Coel Hen was the last Roman, Dux Brittanniarum. He held the north in a strong protective grip, and guaranteed little trouble from the Picts to the north. His descendants divided into small kingdoms that fell one by one to the Angles. (Hen means old in ancient Welsh and this Coel Hen is the Old King Cole!) Coel Hen is a distant grandfather of Princess Nesta Tewdwr Mawr.
Colin Mackenzie, I Earl of Seaforth, Colin was created earl and lord Fortrose in 1623. He was favored by both King James VII of Scotland and Charles I of England and Scotland. Charles appointed Colin to his Privy Council. His reputed status was not exceeded any Scots nobles.
Cosimo di Gherardini, The Great Duke Florence, Sadly we know too little about a man called the Great. However, his existence is assured. He had at least one son, Otterus, born in c1000 in Florence. Otterus was "an Italian Baron of the Gherardini of Florence, Lord in Tuscany, went from Florence into Normandy and then to England and to Wales about 1000. He was son of Cosimo, the great Duke of Florence." Otterus was the father of Other FitzOethore, Baron of Windsor. Horace Round documented the FitzGeralds' ancestors and cites a family historian, Brian Fitzgerald. In his book The Geraldines, Brian Fitzgerald notes:
Donald MacLeod of Genies, Sheriff. Beginning near the end of the seventeenth century he was deputy sheriff and later sheriff of Ross-shire for a total of 59 years. He was also Sir George Steuart Mackenzie's father-in-law and one of the chief enforcers in regions of Cromarty and Ross of the post-Culloden English domination. Donald MacLeod was the law in the Dingwall area near Contin, which Mackenzies of Coul called home.
Eric Emundsson, King of Sweden and Goten. Like most Vikings, he was a warrior king. He was born in 849, and died c905. He was a grandfather of Yaroslav I, Prince of Kiev, who was born in Kiev in 978. Yaroslav was grandfather to Lady Margaret de Strathbogie, who married Kenneth Mackenzie, II Baron of Kintail in c1305.
Elizabeth Jane Wilson. She was born in Ireland and her parents, James and Elizabeth Brock, emigrated to Canada - perhaps because of the mid-1840s Irish ‘potatoe’ famines. The Irish famines were horrific and entire villages were wiped out due to bad weather and the failure of the basic Irish peasant staple, the potato. Sadly the land-owners were often uncaring Englishmen.
Francis Humberston Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, Lieutenant General. Lord Seaforth (also the Baron of Kintail) raised the 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot , or Seaforth (Highland) Regiment in 1778. (The Seaforths have since been amalgamated into The Royal Regiment of Scotland.) Although he became deaf (and nearly dumb) at age 12, he became a member of parliament, a soldier, a Fellow of the Royal Society, Lord Lieutenant of Ross, and the Governor of the Bahamas. A generous man he gave money to the artisit Sir Thomas Lawrence. He also commissioned several paintings including his own in full highland regalia here, plus one of Colin FitzGerald rescuing King Alexander III from the angry stag.
In 1778, he was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in command of his new regiment. In 1794, he was authorised to raise a second battalion called the 78th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot (or The Ross-shire Buffs). In 1798, he was appointed Colonel of the Ross-shire Regiment of Militia. In 1808 he was promoted to Lieutenant General.
Sir Walter Scott was a personal friend and wrote '... The last Baron of Kintail, Francis, Lord Seaforth was a nobleman of extraordinary talents, who must have made for himself a lasting reputation had not his political exertions been checked by painful natural infirmities.'
Francis Wilson. The Wilson family patriarch was Elizabeth Jane’s grandfather Francis, born in Scotland about 1790, in Caithness. Francis was a linen weaver, who eloped to Ireland with a sixteen year-old daughter of a Gunn Laird who chased them all the way to the sea. They raised six children in Derrygonnelly. In c1852, he emigrated to Port Hope, in Upper Canada.
Frank Charles Moore, Lieutenant Governor. Elected the New York State Lieutenant Governor in 1950, he resigned to accept Nelson Rockerfeller’s offer to head the Rockerfeller Foundation for Government Affairs. He was my Granny's nephew.
Fynvola Macleod, of Harris. Fynvola married Murdoch Mackenzie, VI Baron of Kintail. Fynvola was the daughter of Margaret Mar, Countess of Mar, by Margaret’s second marriage in c1362. The Mars were one of the oldest earldoms and were related to most of the Irish kings and nearly all the English peer families. I am married to Pamela Marr and see here that our families have some history of intermarriage.
George Gilchrist Mackenzie. George was my grandfather and led a tough depression-era life. He decided to accept a job in the British Columbia interior with the railroad, via an invitation from his brother Alex. He had married Helen Moore and then lived in Toronto with their children Murray and his younger brother (my father) Alan. George appears to have been quite capable and built their own log cabin, as recounted in my grandmother's book, Pioneer. What I know of George came to me through my grandmother, since he died of a brain hemmorage after a long decline, before I was born. George was born in Rothsay, Ontario and spent the last half of his adult life as an invalid. George and his brothers do not appear to have had much of a family feeling as Helen recounted that in Toronto they lived close to, but rarely visted his family. George was the eldest of his generation.
George Mackenzie, Earl of Cromartie, Viscount Tarbat, Lord MacLeod of Castlehaven. The family founder was Sir Rorie Mackenzie, the tutor of Kintail, who built Castle Leod at Strathpeffer in c1615. Rorie's grandson was George, who was a good scholar who completed a classical education at St Andrews and Aberdeen. George then followed a legal career. He played in politics and suffered for some years, but in 1678 was appointed Lord Justice-General of Scotland, Clerk Register in 1692, and Secretary of State for Scotland in 1702. He was elevated to the earldom of Cromartie in 1703. The current Clan Chief is Lord John Mackenzie, the Right Honourable Earl of Cromartie, Baron MacLeod of Castle Leod, Baron Castlehaven of Castlehaven. John and his family now live at Castle Leod, which is set in very pretty country.
George Steuart Mackenzie, VII Baronet of Coul. Described by John Prebble as an ass, he was anxious to be accepted as a serious scientist and wrote several articles as an economist. He was both a General in the Royal Scottish Archers (the Queen's bodyguard in Scotland) and a vice-president of the Royal Society, presumably in a bid to secure his lands and gain English favour. He was a vocal supporter of both major Scottish social and economic reform and as a Highland landowner changed from Angus cattle to sheep. The sheep required more grazing land than the former cattle and Sir George and others cruelly evicted their clansmen to make room for the sheep. These Highland clearances resulted in a Scottish migration, which continued to destroy the Highland way of life. Sir George authored A General View of the Agriculture of Ross and Cromarty. Prebble considers this book a selfish landlord's view.
Gerald FitzGerald, I Baron of Kintail. Gerald FitzGerald was a third son, who changed his name to Colin, after his distinguished bravery in the Battle of Callan, in Desmond, Ireland in 1262. He then crossed from Ireland with a ‘large number of followers’ into Scotti Dalriada and offered support to King Alexander III. He must have been a competent soldier, because he won a feudal barony with the defeat of the Vikings and their Norse King, Haakon IV of Norway, at the Battle of Largs in 1263. The grandson of the powerful Norman-Irish, second Maurice FitzGerald he was created Baron of Kintail, and given the strategic Eilean Donan Castle in 1266. He married Lady Margaret Stewart and initiated the Mackenzie line by calling his son Kenneth. His descendants are Mackenneths in Scots Gaelic, or Mackenzie in English. Kenneth named his son Kenneth, and his grandson Murdo, was called Filius Kennethi, in a grant of the lands of Kintail, in 1360 by King David II.
Gerald FitzWalter Windsor, Constable of Pembroke. He was a grandson of Sir Other FitzOthoere, who was created baron of Windsor by Edward the Confessor and who initiated a family in England. Gerald was appointed Castellan, (Constable) of Pembroke Castle in Wales by Arnulf de Montgomery. Gerald’s father, Walter, had been Castellan of Windsor Castle and Henry I deliberately moved Gerald into Wales. That was sensible because the Normans had only just begun to conquer Britain. Gerald was a commander in Henry’s army in southern Wales and defeated the Welsh king Rhys. In an act of state, Henry had Gerald marry Princess Nesta, Rhys’ daughter and Henry’s mistress. (Nesta’s pedigree includes many Welsh kings and queens.) Gerald was described ‘as a stalwart cunning man’ by his great-grandson Gerald, known as the historian Giraldus Cambrensis, or Gerald of Wales. Gerald FitzWalter successfully defended Pembroke against the Welsh, even using psychology in 1094. Although Pembroke was under siege and close to starving Gerald ordered his men to throw the last meat over the walls at the Welsh; with a planted letter, denying a need for reinforcements. It worked: the discouraged Welsh left. Walter and his father Walter FitzOthoere gained control of considerable land and Walter built Carew Castle to enhance his new status. Although the Carew family added constructions during the next five hundred years, it was a fine castle built on a key piece of ground near Pembroke, commanding a crossing over the Carew River. Even in Walter's time much of the stone must have been taken from a defensive ditch around the castle walls. Walter built with wood and earth. In 1480 it was sold to Rhys ap Thomas who added much of the existing work and gatehouse. Before Rhys, Sir Nicholas de Carew added many of the stone buildings surrounding the inner ward.
Helen Elsie Moore. My granny, she was born in Port Hope, Ontario. She was a granddaughter of Francis Wilson, who is noted elsewhere. A 5'7" feisty and determined woman, she trained and taught as a teacher (she taught me some Latin) and lastly worked as a clerk in the Children's Aid to support her invalid husband George Mackenzie, whom she called Mac - perhaps because of his father's name change. Helen was my Granny Mackenzie and she wrote a book she called Pioneer describing her life in 1912 Fort George British Columbia. George and Helen moved to ‘the last best West’ then encouraged by the Canadian government. She wrote to old friends and her book describes moving up the Fraser River in a paddle steamer, mail delivery by six-horse stagecoach, and life in a log cabin. My cousin Janet Harding has recovered both her book and letters. It is fun to read first-hand accounts about relatives and I have a few quotes here of her frontier life. The first concerns my father, and the second frontier reality. Granny's letters show her personal interest in both history and her genealogy, presumably sparked by her father-in-law's position in the Coul inheritance. She has left a series of letters and data, which have helped me to piece things together. Helen and George are buried at Mount Pleasant cemetery in Toronto, near his father Kenneth McKenzie, in a separate grave with a change back (?) to Mackenzie.
Henry Philip Moore. He emigrated from Cambridge, in England and worked on the construction of Canada’s Parliament. He moved to Port Hope and married Elizabeth Wilson and stayed to become a butcher. Like his father William, who had been a greengrocer supplying the Cambridge Colleges, he continued a family tradition. The Moore coat of arms was hung outside an ancestor’s inn.
Henry FitzHenry, Lord of Norberg-Pebidiog. Henry is a son of king Henry I, of England, by the Princess Nesta Tewdwr Mawr. He had four children, one of whom was Lady Amabilis FitzHenry, who married Walter de Riddlesford, Baron Moulenford. Their son, Walter, was created the earl of Ulster. In his turn, Walter was the grandfather of Lady Emmeline, who married our uncle, Maurice FitzGerald, Justiciar of Ireland.
Henry I, Beauclerc, King of England, Duke of Normandy. Henry reigned in 1100-1135 and succeeded as duke of Normandy in 1106. He is related to us via his mistress Nesta, and their son Henry FitzHenry, Lord of Norberg-Pebidiog. Henry is further related to us by his grand-daughter Lady Emmeline Longespee, who married Maurice FitzGerald, Justiciar of Ireland, in 1256. Henry’s reign was notable for legal and administrative reforms, and for the final resolution of an investiture controversy. Abroad, he waged several wars to expand his continental possessions. He was so hated by his brothers that they vowed to disinherit him. In 1106 he captured Robert and held him until he died. He proved to be a hard but just ruler. He apparently died from over eating Lampreys. Henry was the most capable son of William the Conqueror and Matilda, born 1068, and nicknamed Beauclerc, fine scholar, for his above average education. He married Eadgyth (who later took the name Matilda): she was a daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland and bore Henry two sons and a daughter. One son died very early, and the other, William, died in the Wreck of the White Ship in November 1120, leaving the daughter, Matilda, as the sole heir. Matilda married Heinrich V, Holy Roman Emperor, and thus became an Empress. She later married Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and Maine and father of king Henry II (Plantagenet), of England. Both Henry I and his second wife Matilda were grandchildren of the emperor Charlemagne.
James Fitzgerald, Duke of Leinster, Earl of Kildare, Baron of Offaly. He was the 20th Earl of Kildare when he was created Duke ofLeinster in the Peerage of Ireland, Marquess of Kildare and Earl of Offaly in 1766. He was created Viscount Leinster of Taplow in 1747. James was born on 29 May 1722 and died at Leinster House in Dublin on 19 November 1773. He was married in London on 7 February 1747 to Lady Emilia Lennox. The earldom of Kildare was granted in 1316 and this FitzGerald family lived at Castle Maynooth in County Kildare. His Grace James built the family town house in Dublin which was named Leinster House. The dukedom has been created twice, the first being awarded to Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, 1st Duke of Leinster (30 June 1641 - 5 July 1719), an Irish general who fought for William III in 1609 at the Battle of the Boyne: this duke died without heirs. The second creation was to James, who was an active member of parliament in Westminster and a leader of the Irish Popular Party. James was Master of the Ordnance from 1758 until 1760, when he became Colonel of the Royal Irish Artillery. James was the premier duke in Ireland.
James William Lurgan Black. He studied medicine at Dalhousie University in Halifax, gave it up and studied music and became first violinist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Mary Belle McKenzie was his second wife, who was born in Nova Scotia of a United Empire Loyalist family who had migrated from Virginia after 1783. James became a herbalist in Toronto and died after falling out of an apple tree at age ninety. A spendthrift, he inherited $250,000, which he spent in two years!
James Wilson. James eloped with Elizabeth Brock. Her elder sister took back Bessie’s trousseau, except one silver spoon - now in my cousin Mary Helen’s possession. James emigrated to Canada about 1855 without Bessie, who had died. He helped build the Midland railway. An Orangeman, he celebrated King William’s 1690 victory over the Irish until he was nearly 80.
Kenneth Mackenzie, Marquess of Seaforth, Earl of Seaforth & Ross, Viscount Fortrose, Baron of Kintail. Kenneth was the fourth earl of Seaforth, but he was an avid Jacobite and served as Privy Councellor to King James II of England - in exile in Paris. He acceded to the vacant earldom of Ross in 1681 and in 1687 was created a Knight of the Thistle. Kenneth was in Londonderry and at the 1690 Battle of the Boyne. In 1695, James II created Kenneth Marquis of Seaforth, although this was not recognised in Britain.
Kenneth Mackenzie, I Baron Mackenzie of Kintail. Kintail is in Dalriada and is Gaelic for ‘the head of the sea’. Kenneth lived in the historical Mackenzie home site in Kintail called Eilean Donan castle. Kenneth was a clever man who helped King James VI by marriage and war to quell the rebellious MacLeods on the Island of Lewis. Kenneth was unscrupulously clever and he even bought the MacLeods’ lands while fighting with them. Baron Kenneth was appointed a Privy Councillor in 1602, and obtained Royal charters for the lands in 1607. He was created Lord Mackenzie of Kintail in 1609 and was granted the Barony of Lews in 1610. His son Colin was created Earl of Seaforth by James VI (James I of England) in 1623 and served as Secretary of State to King Charles II. His nephew Kenneth was I Baronet of Coul.
Kenneth Ian Mackenzie, III Baron of Kintail. In 1267, the Mackenzies (then Irish FitzGerald family members) lived at the head of the Loch Duich fiord on the Scottish West Coast in Eilean Donan castle. Kenneth’s aunt had married the Earl of Ross and cemented relationships between their families. Kenneth sheltered King Robert the Bruce from Edward II in 1306, despite opposition from the Rosses. Kenneth fought at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. This gives notice of the rising Mackenzie power and their loyalty to the Scottish crown, later born out during the Scottish Jacobean wars.
Kenneth McKenzie. Born in Lochbroom, on the Scottish West Coast in Ross-shire, he and his twin sister Anne were the last of six children. Kenneth was a carriage maker and emigrated to the town of Rothsay north of Hamilton, Ontario, in c1864. A sister called Phoebe, or Eve, may have moved also to Canada with him. Kenneth married Margaret McEachern (daughter of Archibald McEachern and Anne Gilchrist) in 1866 in Rothsay before he moved to Toronto. He may have acquired some land, which was then given up to speculators at the outbreak of WWI. His name was McKenzie and perhaps his father George deliberately changed the spelling to spite his own father. (Admittedly spelling was not then taken so seriously.) On being informed of his uncle's death and his own entitlement to the baronetcy of Coul, Kenneth decided to remain in Canada anonymously. He sold his carriage-making company to McLaughlin (who in turn sold out to General Motors). Margaret worked at the Dominion Transport Company in Toronto, presumably after losing the land. He told his children that although entitled to Coul, he did not want the inheritance. Ullapool is near the area of original Mackenzie settlement, but during the 1400s the Mackenzies acquired richer lands in Eastern Scotland. A past head of the Canadian chapter of the Mackenzie Clan, Alan McKenzie, noted that the parish of Lochbroom was composed almost entirely of impoverished Mackenzies. Moneyed Scots stayed in the fertile east and I have no explanation for this inconsistency. Kenneth’s parents have been identified separately as George and Anne McKenzie. Since Kenneth claimed the Coul Baronetcy his father George must relate to Sir George Steuart Mackenzie and there is only the single possibility for Kenneth’s inheritance.
Kenneth Mackenzie, I Baronet of Coul. 'Kenneth was in great favour with King Charles II. Charles created him baronet by his royal patent; to him and to the heirs-male of his body; 16 October, 1673.' Apparently Kenneth did a good job as Sheriff-Principal of Ross and Inverness.
Kenneth Murray Mackenzie. Murray was raised with Alan in Fort George, British Columbia. He was a tall, happy, and pleasant man who helped put my father through university and who joined the Imperial Oil company to work in Colombia, South America. By chance he met and married a Canadian nurse, Mildred Armstrong, who was also working there. Mildred became ill and had to be shipped back to Canada for recovery. As WWII loomed they travelled back and forth to Canada and eventually settled with daughters Mary Helen and Janet in Oakville, Canada. During WWII, Murray worked for the Canadian government, on loan from Imperial Oil. This loan agreement just beat the arrival of his army commission and so he spent that war helping to develop army explosives. He then worked for Imperial Oil (Esso, now Exxon) and supervised the construction and development of the strategic oilfield and refinery at Norman Wells. (Murray was the sole Imperial Oil refinery superintendent ever selected without having a university degree.) Norman Wells was considered to be critical for the re-supply of Russian oil via the Alaska Highway. After living in Oakville, Murray and Mildred moved to Edmonton, while Janet and Mary Helen studied nursing in Toronto. Murray died of cancer in Edmonton.
Louis I, King of France. Born in August, 778 in Bourges, Aquitaine, to the Emperor Charlemagne and Hildegarde. He acceded to the kingdom of Aquitaine in 781, and to France and as Holy Roman Emperor in 814. Louis married Irmingard and then Judith of Bavaria. He died on 30 April, 840. We are related via Henry I, King of England.
Llywellyn Fawr Ap Iowerth, King of Aberffraw, Gwynedd and Powys. Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also called Llywelyn Fawr, Lord of Snowdon, and Llywelyn the Great, might justly be called the greatest of the mediaeval Welsh kings. He is related to us via his granddaughter Margaret de Strathbogie. By 1202, he had taken advantage of the quarrels of his uncles and had become ruler of the kingdom of Gwynedd. Further successes in Deheubarth after the death of the Lord Rhys, and in Powys made him the most powerful of all the Welsh rulers. In 1205, he married King John of England's daughter, Princess Joan, and helped his father-in-law in a campaign against King William, of Scotland. By 1210, the situation had changed dramatically: John invaded Gwynedd and Llywelyn was forced to retreat to the mountainous areas in the West. When John found himself embroiled in the Magna Carta struggles with his Barons and the Pope, Llywelyn was able to reassert his authority in North Wales. In 1216, he presided over a Welsh Parliament at which he was acknowledged as overlord of all other native Welsh rulers. Henry III confirmed this position at the Peace of Worcester in 1218. The achievements of Llywelyn were many. Before he died in 1240 as a monk at Aberconwy monastery he inspired a revision of the Laws of Hywel Dda.
Margaret de Strathbogie, Lady. Margaret married Kenneth Mackenzie II Baron of Kintail. Margaret was the granddaughter of Donald Mar, VI Earl of Mar and his countess Helen Verch Llywellyn Fawr. Margaret’s sister, Isobel, was the second wife of king Robert the Bruce. Margaret’s mother, Helen Verch Llywellyn Fawr’s step-mother was Joan Plantagenet, only daughter of king John, of England and Agatha Ferrers. Helen’s father was Llywellyn Fawr Ap Iowerth, Prince of Aberffraw.
Mary Jane Black. She was born in Manitoba, in a log cabin during -40º winter with an inch of ice on the inside of the windows. Her home was just outside the Hudson’s Bay Post at Fort Garry. Robert Dickson and Charles Boulton, also relatives, had been active earlier there, during the Métis Rebellions. Mary Jane and her parents were original settlers and pioneers and she recounted that the Indians would bring their furs to sell to the post factor, who routinely stored the pelts at the back of the post where the Indians would wait to steal the pelts back. The Indians would then sell the furs back again!
Maurice FitzGerald, Baron Lanstephan, Baron of Offaly. Called 'The Invader of Ireland', Maurice was the eldest son of Gerald FitzWalter and Nesta. Maurice landed near Waterford, Ireland with Earl Richard, joining Robert le Gros and Milo de Cogan, who had arrived in May 1169. Maurice, Robert, and Milo are all our relatives through Princess Nesta, and all three were heroes in the winning of Dublin from the Viking and Irish defenders (Earl Asgall, John the Wode, and King Rory O'Connor). Robert and Milo took the fortress by direct attack; Milo cut up the Vikings who later attacked the fortress; and Maurice led the successful charge against King Rory. King Henry II granted Maurice the Barony of Offaly in Ireland. He married Alicia, daughter of his father’s mentor Arnulf de Montgomery, and he was a senior lieutenant for Richard de Clare, Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, who led the subsequent Norman conquest of Ireland. Maurice FitzGerald’s son, Lord Gerald, was created Baron Offaly, and his son William was Baron of Naas. Strongbow granted the manor of Maynooth to Maurice who erected a castle for protection against the native Irish and initiated the FitzGerald line in Ireland. In 1426, John Cam FitzJohn FitzGerald, VI Earl Kildare enlarged and rebuilt the castle, which became the centre of FitzGerald power. In 1229, Maurice's grandson, also called Maurice, was made Lord Justice (Viceroy) of Ireland by King Henry III, and built mediaeval castles at Armagh and Sligo in Ireland. Gerald of Wales noted that the vigorous FitzGeralds were Crusaders and established one of the most powerful families in Ireland.
Mervin Archdahl Armstrong. A Canadian pioneer, he was born in Drumquin, Ontario, Canada on the farm established by his father and grandfather - both called Samuel. Mervin married Mary Jane Black. He was a clever inventor and established the Mackenzie Clan in Oakville, by marrying his daughter Mildred to my Uncle Murray. My grandmother (Helen Mackenzie) thought Mervin a fine man and spent considerable time with her Armstrong in-laws. Mervin sold Murray some land and in turn, Murray sold some to my father Alan.
Merovech, Konig der Salic Francs. The Merovegnian kings descend from this Westphalian German. His grandson was Clovis I, who is accepted as the first king of France. It was Merovich and his father, Clodius, who initiated cooperation with the Romans. The Salic Franks helped the Roman General Ætius defeat the Huns in 451 at the Battle Chalons, near Orléans. Although the Merovegnian suffered from the later Carolingians defamation as 'The Do-Nothing Kings', this label is now accepted as self-serving by the later dynasty to justify their seizure of power. Merovich and his dynasty created France by dominating the Romans and Gauls. This is recognised today by the very name these Francs gave to their new kingdom. Merovich made his capital in the Ardennes in Belgium and his son Childeric's tomb was found near Tournai. Although the tomb was looted, a few remnants were recovered to show the source of the 'bee' as a symbol of French royalty. We are related via both Pepin I, King of Italy, Charlemagne and the Norman William I, King of England.
Nesta Tewdwr Mawr, Princess of Deheubarth. Nesta was a power in her own right with plenty of political awareness. She outlived one husband Gerald, married at least twice, and was evidently highly attractive as a Norman bridal prize, with a line-up of anxious male suitors. Nesta was mistress to several Normans including King Henry I, of England. Her later cousin, Henry Tudor, was a king of England. Described as ‘fabulously beautiful’ she was married, at Henry’s order, to our ancestor Gerald FitzWalter. She is well documented in most relevant sources. Although Wales was unsettled, Nesta was the daughter of Rhys Ap Tewdwr Mawr, King of Deheubarth, and Gwladis Verch Rhiwallon, Princess of Powys. Nesta was born in 1073 in Carmarthenshire, Wales and her pedigree includes many Welsh kings and runs back to Cassivelaunus and on to c1200BC. By her, we are related to many of the European nobility. By Henry I, Nesta is the mother of Henry FitzHenry, Lord of Norberg-Pebidiog. Nesta is also the mother of the FitzGerald line, and via them the Mackenzies. Both Gerald and Nesta are direct grandparents.
Other FitzOthoere, Baron of Windsor. His grandfather was Cosimo, the Great, Duke of Florence, a Geraldini, Duke in Tuscany. Other (also called Lord Otho or Dominus) has been claimed a lieutenant of William the Conqueror in the 1066 invasion of England. Of David Howarth’s estimated 400 ships required for the invasion Sir Other supposedly contributed a remarkable sixty. I have found no substantiation for this claim of direct invasion support; although there is evidence that he was Edward the Confessor’s man and was created Baron of Windsor. Of his three grandsons, Gerald was Castellan of Pembroke Castle and a commander for King Henry I in Southern Wales, Robert was Baron of Eston, and William was Ancestor to the Earls of Plymouth. At least, Sir Other must have helped substantially William I and his 10,000 Normans to conquer the 1-2,000,000 Anglo-Saxons, since his family was so trusted by the Normans.
Ramesses II the Great, Pharaoh of Egypt, Commonly known as Ramses he was apparently the king who 'let my people go' and who chased Moses to the Red Sea. (Actually historians now doubt that the king himself was there, but that is a detail.) Ramses was born in 1302 BC and reigned from 1279-1213 BC and like all royal Egyptians he had a number of formal names, which confuse the record. Europeans found that there was a direct French link via Charles Vienne, and through Louis Beronides who married Anna Porphyrogenita (b 889) into Egyptian lineages. Since Egyptian royal marriages were often between brothers and sisters it is no surprise to learn we are related to most of the pharaohs, shahs, and kings of the Middle East. There appears to be a direct line back to c1800 BC.
Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn Frych, King of Wales. Rhodri Mawr is a well-documented figure who died in 898 at Anglesey, Colwyn, Wales. He is a grandfather of Princess Nesta Tewdwr Mawr, via his son Cadell Ap Rhodri Mawr, King of Seisyllwg. Rhodri was a strong military leader and he took advantage of a lull in Anglo-Saxon pressure due to Wessex and Mercia infighting. Rhodri established a firm base in his inherited kingdom of Gwenedd. That lull coincided with an increase in Viking raids in Southern England, which also distracted attention away from Wales. With this pause Rhodri Mawr set about extending his control over the other Welsh kingdoms. Rhodri Mawr had extended his control over Poweys, Ceredigion, and Dyfed, before the Vikings turned on Wales in 853. He was killed in battle, probably by the Mercians. Alfred the Great was king of Wessex at that time and as his power grew, so the prospects diminished for a coherent Welsh kingdom. Rhodri Mawr was one of the few kings of all Wales.
Samuel Armstrong. He emigrated from Ireland to Canada when about 50 years old, after his wife had died. He opened a tavern in Hornby, Ontario and then sent for his children and a new wife. Samuel fathered another four children by his new wife. He settled on a farm north of Oakville and his son established a blacksmith shop.
Violet Louise Moore. My great-aunt Lou was shunned from her nephew Alan's engagement party to his first fiancée Kathleen. The party was given by Lou's sister and Alan's mother, Helen; and Lou was cross. Aunt Lou made her feelings known by dumping a truck-full of smelly manure in Granny’s garden - during the engagement party! Lou was no shrinking Violet!
William Alfred Moore, Colonel. Uncle Alf helped raise the Toronto militia regiment, the Governor General's Horse Guard as a personal, private WWI contribution. I recall Alf as a reserved, old soldier, filled with wonderful war stories for young boys.
William Lyon Mackenzie. He came from Dundee and published a Toronto newspaper. He was the first Mayor of Toronto in 1834 and exploited both his newspapers and mayoral position. In 1837, he led 800 rebellious Torontonians in against the Upper Canada ‘Family Compact’. His pro-American democracy protest against patronage was responsible for causing the then Lieutenant Governor Colbourne to be dismissed. He fought with the my mothers relatives, the Boultons, who ran Upper Canada as their British peers ran the rest of The Empire. William Lyon Mackenzie and other Scots had left Britain to get away from class domination and he was determined to make a change. The English had destroyed both Scottish feudal power and society at Culloden. Scots left the Highland for Canada in large numbers as Scots society broke down, assuring the emigration of men like Mackenzie. He was grandfather of Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie-King, to whom we are also cousins.
William Mackenzie, IX Baronet. Educated at Edinburgh, he joined the Honourable East India Company and served in Bombay and China, while living in New South Wales, Australia. His widow later remarried the Baron di San Felice of Naples.
William The Conqueror, King of England, Duke of Normandy. William was the bastard son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and Arletta and was referred to as Guillaume le Conquerant, or William the Bastard. William was born in Falaise, on October 14, 1028 and became duke at age seven when Robert died on crusade in 1035. He married Mathilda, daughter of Count Baldwin of Flanders and had nine children. Like most of the Norman aristocracy, William was an energetic and skilled organiser and with his close friends he planned the invasion of England. They continued the Norman domination of Europe (previously of France, Italy and Sicily) by defeating king Harold at the 1066 Battle of Hastings. Unlike Edward the Confessor, William did not grant large baronies of land to his followers: instead he granted multiple, small and widespread pieces of land. This denied the earlier Saxon opportunity for single feudal subordinates to create a solid power-base to challenge the king’s authority. The Conquest of England was completed by 1072 aided by the establishment of feudalism, under which his followers were granted land in return for pledges of service and loyalty. As king, William was noted for his efficient - if harsh, rule; administration relied on Normans and foreigners like Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Other FitzOthoere. In 1085, William ordered the creation of the Domesday Book to list every possession in England for his taxation. It did indeed spell doom for the Saxons. We are directly related via William’s son Henry and through the Norman marriages to Charlemagne's heirs.
William Smith. Is identified as a Moore ancestor, William was born in Melrose, Scotland. He was a gardener at Heacham Hall in Norfolk for the Rolfe family. They were descendants of the John Rolph and his colonial Indian Princess bride Pocahontas. Although an interesting man, who accidentally drowned in his own garden pool, I have not been able to place him genealogically.
Wittekind, King of The Saxons. Wittekind and the Saxons were pagans and had earlier defeated Roman attempts at civilisation. Charlemagne was determined to bring them into Christianity and tried several times sending missionaries into Saxony. Wiitekind repeated the disappointments killed the priests and continued to worship trees. Eventually Charlemagne mounted an all-out direct attack, cut down their special trees, and over-powered Wittekind. Surprisingly, the warrior Saxons adapted quickly to the Christian concept of a God of War. We are related through Edmund II, King of England, who descends directly from both the Saxon and Frankish kings, as well as through Princess Agatha Westfriesland, who married Edward the Atheling and is herself a direct Saxon descendant.
of Hungary, Prince of the Magyars. Zoltan (still a popular Hungarian
name), died in Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary in 949. The Magyars were probably a
tribe in northern Persia, related to the Huns, who moved northwestward in search
of land. His father was Arpad and his son was Taksony; but the family had consolidated
by the time of Zoltan’s grandson Geza. Geza was elevated to king and his
son St Steven, born in 969, was also a king. Steven’s granddaughter was
Saint Cunigunda, of Luxembourg and she married St Henry II, emperor of Germany.
Evidently sainthood ran in the family, because he too was declared a saint.
Steven’s daughter Hedwig was the mother of Saint Margaret, who married
king Malcom III, of Scotland in 1069, at Dunfermline Abbey. Queen Margaret had
four sons who were kings of Scotland and her daughter Edith Matilda married
Henry I, of England. Margaret’s last son king David I, was the father
of Henry Huntingdon and grandfather of Margaret Stewart, who married Gerald
(Colin) FitzGerald, I Baron of Kintail.
 Related by my father Alan, the claims clearly had little foundation in truth. There was a basic element of truth however, as there was a disputed Earldom and his grandfather did claim to his family that his relatives had urged him to take up the Baronetcy of Coul. See the story below concerning Alan's cousin Louise, who was not invited to his first engagement party. My father married twice and his mother was a no nonsense woman who was not about to imperil his first marriage to Katherine.
 Michael Edwards, A History of India, pp. 193-194. John Keay, in The Honourable Company, p. 325 describes the Company's focus on Bengali trade.
 David Williamson, Brewer's British Royalty, pp. 18-19.
 Ibid, p. 357.
 Einhard, The Life of Charlemagne, translated by Samuel Epes Turner, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880) [in 1960 the University of Michigan Press reprinted this translation, with a copyrighted forward by Sidney Painter].
 Carr P Collins, Jr., Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons , p. 103. I am not at all convinced that Collins has the right story for the father of Other, since there is much confusion in separating the two and many authors cite Other as being the son of Cosimo. However, in context it sounds right.
 JH Round, "The Origin of the Fitzgeralds", in The Ancestor, vol. 1, pp. 121-122.
 Even with my incomplete database, tracking 20 generations back from Yaroslav I required 356 pages of text to confirm the direct Mackenzie relationship. Genealogy is not for the faint of heart!
 Patricia [Moore] Patterson provided the Henry Philip Moore information and the Wilson and Willison Viking derivation and correlation. She noted that the Wilson clan settled in Berwick, Scotland and the Willisons then migrated to Canada from NE England: confirmation of the Wilson/Willison connection. Patricia described the Wilson coat of arms as a gold wolf and three gold starfish on a black background. The family motto is 'Semper Vigilans' and since Wilsons also immigrated to Ulster in Ireland, their family history demanded vigilance, tracing back to the early 800s Norway.
 Cousin Patricia [Moore] Patterson's letter, 8 Dec 94.
 John Prebble, The Highland Clearances, pp. 28-29. Sir George clearly was one of the advocates of the replacement of people by sheep (specifically the Cheviot breed) in the Highlands after the 1746 loss at Culloden. The English and Butcher Cumberland's disciplined army had shattered the Highland culture, economy, loyalties, and society. England had needed meat to feed Marlborough's army in the wars of the Spanish Succession and in the later Napoleonic wars. Highland chiefs, faced with economic ruin and the loss of their previous clan warfare pastime, turned to sheep. Clans became an anachronism overnight and their clansmen despised men like Sir George. Inspired by new American and French ideals, Sir George's third son George may have rebelled against his father's disloyalty to the Mackenzie clansmen.
 George Crawfurd, The Peerage Of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1716, pp. 435-436
 Sir E Mackenzie Mackenzie, The Genealogy of the Stem of the Family of Mackenzie, p. 9.
 Robert Innes-Smith, Pembroke Castle, p. 15.
About here. Edmund Curtis, A History of Ireland, pp. 44-45.
 Cousin Mary Helen [Mackenzie] Hatch is in touch with another cousin Bill Moore who is researching the Moore family history. A third cousin, Patricia [Moore] Patterson, has incorporated Bill's results with her own; and her published genealogy with Bill Moore's research has been included in this analysis. Mary Helen has promised to follow up Margaret McEachern's ancestry.
 The data source is Helen [Moore] Mackenzie's family notes in my possession, confirmed by a letter to her brother Frank in Patricia's possession. The difference in spelling of Moore (noted in later genealogical charts) suggests an old name. The word moor is found to mean empty place, wasteland, or damp place and derives from the old English and even older German. Kenneth Cameron, English Place Names, p. 222, gives additional spellings as mor, more and mur: he gives the old English (c AD 700-1100) spelling as mor. Robert Claiborne, The Roots of English, takes this further back and notes on pp. 5-7, that oral Indo European (c8000 BC) was the source language for half the human race, and the basis of German, Latin, Greek, Balt, Slav, Sanskrit, Farsi and 80% of English. On p. 157, he gives the Indo-European root of the German word as Ma. Extrapolation from the root to the name is not helpful, but the name Moore suggests an old family, which originally lived near a damp, or empty place. It could also allude to the North African Moors who taxed the Crusaders in Spain and infer a Crusader connection. Despite a North African head depicted in the Moore arms shown in this book, the latter is likely a pun.
 About 60,000 Loyalists left America during or after the Revolution and settled in present day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Québec and Ontario.
 Related by my Grandmother Helen Moore Mackenzie. She said she and my grandfather George were bilked of valuable lands, by a fraudulent patriotic appeal to aid the national war effort.
 An oral History recalled by Mildred Mackenzie.
 Murray was appointed to the Chemicals and Explosives Branch of the Munitions and Supply Department. Privy Council Order in Council Minute B9, P.C. 18 Jun 41.
 The Canadian government paid commercial companies $1 per year for the services of specialists like Murray.
 King John had five wives.
 The Factor was the boss of the post (store) and York Factory (like church rectory) on the shore of Hudson's Bay was named for this position, not some industrial factory production.
 It is difficult to identify surnames, since they were not widely used; for example, Gerald is also known as Gerald de Windsor, and also Gerald FitzWindsor, or FitzOther: most confusing. Generally - but not always - men took their father's in some variant as a surname.
 See Richard Roche, The Norman Invasion of Ireland, Pp. 15-17; also Alison Weir, Eleanor of Aquitaine, By the Wrath of God, Queen of England, p. 357; and David Williamson, Brewer's British Royalty, pp. 282, 382; and David Walker, The Normans in Britain, pp. 101-108, amongst others.
 Sir E Mackenzie Mackenzie, The Genealogy of the Stem of the Family of Mackenzie, p.8. He made a considerable research of primary sources. David Howarth, 1066 The Year Of The Conquest, pp. 120-121 gives an expert estimate of Duke William's transport ship designs and suggests the fleet numbered a maximum of four hundred. To protect his investment he would have had to fill those ships with some of his own warriors: perhaps as many as 500 men.
 Kenneth Morgan, The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain, p.104.
 Kari Maund, The Welsh Kings, pp. 39-42.
 This vignette was recounted by Alan and confirmed by both my cousins Janet and Mary Helen.
 George Stanley, Canada's Soldiers, p. 202, gives an account of the farce that played out when both the Rebels and Sheriff Jarvis' Loyalists each fired their muskets, and then turned and fled. The Family Compact was an elitist group.
 Reader's Digest Heritage of Canada, pp. 194-203.
 Ibid. Also see George Stanley, Canada's Soldiers; 1604-1954. Alan Mackenzie also described William Lyon as a cousin.
 John Prebble, Culloden, pp. 32-53.
 Prebble, The Highland Clearances, p. 19. Prebble cites a 1791 investigation in which it was reported that in 20 years no less than 6,400 Scots had sailed from the western parts of Inverness and Ross alone, carrying £38,000 with them. There are perhaps only 500-1,000 people in Contin today.
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