The Republican Army

The Etruscan Servius Tullus was a king of Rome and he instituted the beginnings of a republican democracy and many civil reforms in c550 BC. King Servius Tullus also made major changes in the Roman army. Originally, the army was composed of mounted warriors from the aristocratic classes called the celeres or the equites who rode into battle, dismounted, and engaged in individual combat with their opponents. Only those wealthy enough to outfit themselves with armour, equipment, and horses were eligible to join these elite units. (These equites should not be confused with the later social class called equites or knights, who ranked below the senatorial class in political power.[1] Tullus raised a levy of troops who only needed to supply their own armour and weapons.


c400 BC Etruscans or Greeks?


Tullus organized his army into phalanxes just like the Greek hoplites. The tactics, weapons, and equipment were all basically Greek in origin, copied from the nearby Greek colonies in Italy. Tullus, introduced a census to identify the available manpower and then allocated citizens to one of five classes based on wealth. The wealthy were well armed (and protected): the poor were not. The wealthy wore helmets, shields, breastplates, and leg-protection (called greaves), which were all made of bronze. Republican Roman spears and swords were made of bronze, with bronze, or wood, shafts, handles, and scabbards. The poor were only expected to be fit and they had no armour. The poor were lightly armed, and were used for reconnaissance, or similar flank duties.[2]

The success of the heavy phalanx in battle was due to the soldiers coordinated teamwork and discipline rather than individual heroics. It was an enclosed box formation, in which several ranks of troops, or hoplites, could bring their long spears to bear on an enemy. (Several rows of the long spears would extend beyond their own first rank and confront the enemy.) While the phalanx bristled with spears, the men were protected by the interlocked shields of the first few ranks.

The key to the phalanx was professionalism and discipline and these units proved devastating against other Latin or Italian cities. As they grew more confident in their tactics, they began to dominate their less professional neighbours, and adapt their organisation. The emerging Roman republic required broad cooperation to feed the army, which in turn defended the farmers. The sense of collaboration and collective achievements must have done much to inspire the Romans to work together. This early Roman army consisted of ~4,000 men per phalanx. The phalanx was probably organised into social classes of men, with one metre spacing between ranks and files. That same number was still in use later, then called a legion as described by Livy in the 4th century BC. In abandoning the phalanx, the Romans showed their adaptability as they discarded the mass square and adopted a structure with three rows of different classes of men. The first row hastati were the heavy infantry with spears, armour, and shields; the principes formed the second row; and the lesser classes, called the triarii, formed the third.

By c340 BC, the legion had been structured at 4,200 men; however, there were several types of specialists in each legion and it is difficult to identify the precise numbers at any given time: full strength with leves (light skirmishers) was probably ~4,800 infantry. The early republican legions appear to have fought as separate elements by rows, each row appearing as fresh troops in a battle, or covering a reorganisation of a senior row. The Roman army spent the next century dominating Italy and its near-neighbours and gained considerable experience as an army.By c220 BC, Polybius says that the standing Roman army had six legions of 32,000 infantry and 1,600 cavalry. With full mobilisation of her own and allied men, Rome could field an additional 340,000 infantry and 37,000 cavalry.

Republican Rome's greatest military challenge came from Carthage and led to a series of battles known as the Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were originally Phoenicians and Carthage was a colony founded by the Phoenician capital city of Tyre in the ninth century BC. Carthage became an independent state and created an empire in North Africa. Inevitably the two empires clashed in 264-241 BC, in 218-202 BC, and then again in 149-146 BC: those were the Punic Wars. Defeated in the First Punic War, Carthage rebuilt its strength by expanding its empire into Spain. The first war was fought on Sicily and resulted in a draw, although Rome kept Sicily. In 221 BC Hannibal emerged as the commander of Carthaginian Spain. As we know, Hannibal resumed the war, crossed the Alps with an army and elephants, and defeated several Roman armies, most notably at Cannae in 216 BC. However, Scipio Africanus finally defeated him. Scipio Hannibal's conquered base in Spain by 206 BC, and then attacked Carthage itself. In 204 BC, Scipio began to attack Carthage itself and forced Hannibal's withdrawal from Italy. At the Battle of Zama in northern Africa, the Romans finally defeated Hannibal and Carthage. Carthage became a dependent state and Rome gained control of the western Mediterranean including northern Africa. Still smarting from their near loss to Carthage, Rome finally returned to the attack and levelled the city in 146 BC. The Carthaginians were slaughtered, or sold as slaves. Rome had created an empire and had gained considerable military experience.[3]

Republican To Imperial Army


In 210 BC Scipio Africanus arrived in Spain took command of the defeated Roman troops and set out to avenge the death of his father, killed in battle by Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal Barca. Scipio began by surprising and capturing Cartagena and gained allies by his demonstrated humanity to the native Celts. In 209 BC he defeated Hasdrubal Barca and after gaining more allies he defeated the Carthaginians in 206 BC, near Seville. Scipio spent the next two years in reforming the army and reorganised the legion structure, developed army tactics, and instituted extensive training. Future Roman commanders would be encouraged to use manoeuvre and to outsmart their opponents, rather than their soldiers' brute force. In 203 BC Scipio had used guile to steal upon the Carthaginian night camp, set fire to the tents, and he then ambushed and destroyed an estimated 40,000 Carthaginians and their allies. In 202 BC, Scipio demonstrated the success of his army reforms where he defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama by his tactics, adapted to negate the Carthaginians' elephants.[4]

By the Third Punic War, the Roman Empire had been greatly expanded and included Spain, much of northern Africa, and parts of Asia. The army had adopted a variety of spears (recruitment was still based on a class system), but service in far-off Spain had led to the use of the short sword (gladius). Service away from home was not popular and additional army reforms limited most service to six years. The additional elements of Augustan army structure appeared as leaders were called centurions, an organisational element was termed a maniple, and 10 maniples were allotted to a legion, (later 10 cohorts were allotted to a legion). Finally, a standard was fixed to allocate cavalry to each legion, and encouragement was given to the use of allies.[5]

As is often the case with armies, fighting generals like Scipio Africanus constantly assessed their own and their enemies' organisations for weaknesses and innovations. Marius was another successful Roman general. As a consul, Gaius Marius in 107 BC restructured the army again to create a standard, professional legion. Marius also developed the cohort as a sub-unit of a legion. The cohort had 480 legionaries with six centurions, although the first ten cohorts in a legion had 800 men. Marius also introduced landless recruits and raised the standard of discipline. Marius needed that discipline as civil war broke out and then a revolt by King Mithridates of the eastern Black Sea region of Pontus. During the second half of the first century AD, the size of the cohorts was increased. The regular cohort was increased in size to 480 men in six centuries of 10 files and 8 ranks each. The first cohort was enlarged to 810 men in 5 centuries of 18 files and 9 ranks.

In the later Roman armies of Octavian, Claudius, Marcus Aurelius, and Maximus the standard legion was 5-6,000 men.[6] (Julius Caesar's legions had 3,600 fighting infantry men, but his legions also had an additional number of up to 1,000 men as cavalry, administrators, slaves, and specialists.) Octavian had inherited 60 legions from the confusion of the civil war and fighting by Pompey, Caesar, Octavian himself, Mark Antony, and others. It was Octavian, soon called Augustus, who introduced order, cut the number of legions, and standardised the length of service to 20 years with standardised pay. (In the early fourth century the legions were reduced to less than 500 men to cope with the increased number of barbarian attacks across the divided empire.)


A legionairius or miles


Before the empire, the republican militia legions were authorised by the Roman senate for specific wars and for six years. From the Emperor Octavian Augustus to Nero (5 BC to c70 AD) 28 professional legions of 5-6,000 formed a standing Roman army of about 400,000 men.[6] In 300 AD there were 30 legions. Julius Caesar's army had been smaller as each legion had about 3,600 men and there were only 16 legions. Each legion was given a unique combination of name, number, and crest; but over time there were at least 26 different number 1s (I Legio)! In addition to the legions (manned only by Roman citizens), there were many native auxiliaries and also the emperor's own 10,000-man Praetorian Guard. Originally the commanding general, or praetor's, bodyguard, it had been expanded into an elite force. (Constantine later disbanded the powerful - and thus - dangerous Praetorian Guard.) Each legion had 120 mounted legionaries, a large number of skilled, engineering tradesmen, specialists like priests, musicians, military police, and standard bearer. Additionally, each of the ten cohorts had its own 120 skilled slaves to do most of the hard work.[7] The self-contained legion built its own roads and camps.

Each legion (legio in Latin from 'levy') was a miniature army, skilled, trained, and equipped to perform all duties both on and off the battlefield. Moreover, each legion on campaign was allocated a variety of native auxiliaries (auxilia), adding up to as many as 2,000 more men. All legionaries had basic infantry training and were equipped with a wooden shield, iron (actually sometimes brass) helmet, spear, and short sword. Some legionaries operated artillery torsion guns; others were trained surveyors, engineers and architects, who regularly served as combat engineers constructing fortifications, siege equipment, roads, and bridges. Some men performed administrative duties both at both the unit and provincial levels. The Roman short stabbing sword, or gladius was ~55cms long and made of iron, with a wood handle and guard; the spear, or pilum, deterred cavalry, but was also thrown. The separate pieces of light steel worn as Roman body-armour were flexible enough to absorb the shock of a direct hit by an arrow, or lance, without being pierced. Sandals with a strong webbing sewn to a wooden base shaped to the foot served for marching.

The Roman army was especially good at clever, speedy field manoeuvres and siege warfare. Ramps, scaling ladders, mobile assault towers had galleries for archers, cross bowmen, stone slingers and javelin hurlers. Some of these weapons had deliberate break-away shafts to leave an embedded barbed head in an enemy's wound. 'Greek fire' was a form of petroleum, which the Romans adapted with pumped pressure to create an early napalm flame-thrower, or it could be used with arrows to project fire into an enemy's rear area. Giant catapults called ballistae, or onagers, were capable of flinging heavy projectiles (up to 20 kilos), at up to 250kph, nearly as far as one km; and smaller catapults or scorpios could hurl heavy rocks, bags of stones, or iron darts. Legionaries built fortified camps at the end of each day's march to protect against surprise attacks, with a defended keep in case of defeat. With these tactics, refined weapons technology, repetitive drill, training, and siege techniques the Romans were a match for any enemy.[8]

Roman senators and later emperors were justifiably nervous about the power of army commanders with strong legions, which were kept deployed on the empire's frontiers. The army's efficiency was based on discipline and intelligent command: a legion's commander, a legatus legionis, was a 30 year-old, experienced senator. Roman commanders were trained to be flexible, and adapt their strategies, tactics, formations, and personal leadership styles to each situation. Six military tribunes assisted the commander. Each legion had 60 centurions, who were responsible for commanding companies, training, discipline and organisation. Marching, drill, weapons training, tactical exercises, and equipment checks were continuous and men could be summarily killed for disobeying orders in battle. The imperial legions are listed elsewhere at this site. Professionalism was encouraged by grants of land for the citizen legionaries, and citizenship for the native auxiliaries.

The Imperial Army

The Roman army was one of the world's finest fighting machines and lasted 1,200 years in the West and 2,200 years in Byzantium. Later it had to use barbarian troops and officers, due to its size and domestic politics: this created a major conflict of interest![6] Some light chariots served as mechanized infantry and provided a platform for archers. Chariots and their horses served as a psychological weapon, creating fear by their very mobility. Catapults were were used as artillery, powered by a spring made of a combination of twisted leather thongs and springy wood: a pole in a windlass created the tension. Sixty large catapults per legion gave the army a stand-off attack capability, throwing large missiles up to 1,500m at up to 200 kph.


The highly professional Roman army was well equipped with armour, logistics, weapons, and tactics. Discipline was a religion in the army and disobedience was neither tolerated, nor even considered. Legionary commanders were legates (legatus) and were carefully picked by the senate, or other senior bodies. Political control was built into the army with senators often commanding powerful deployed armies. The centurions were the key officers and some were recruited from amongst the Roman knights, or the city council members. Most centurions had previously served as legionaries either in the legions, or the praetorian cohorts. Distinguished from their fellow officers were the primi ordines, the senior centurions of the first cohort of the legion, (ten cohorts made a legion, each with six centuria of 80 men). These men had achieved their posts by prior service in other postings and were the commanders' chief advisors. The post of primus pilus, the highest-ranking centurion in the legion, carried great prestige and assured entry into the equestrian order.


Roman Tactical Examples

Army Deployment

Typically a formation might anchor its wings with cavalry with perhaps the legions centre, flanked by auxilliary units, flanked by cavalry - if the ends were open. By preference commanders might deploy against a physical obstacle (which would prevent an enemy surrounding move. Commanders do not like enemy end runs. The choice meant that the commander needed intelligence to assess what might work best.


Wedge (cuneus)

To break a line units used a heavy apex.

Triplex Lines

Based on earlier Republican tactics, the first line attacked the enemy, the second followed up success, or replaced a failed attack, the third supported an attack but was prepared to create a defended enclave for failed attackers. Shields could be used to create testudo protection.

Square (orbis)

Familiar to Wellington, the orbis created an armed sanctuary. The often outnumbered legions could be surrounded and the orbis enabled all-round defence. Units could march in 'orbis' formation in a running battle.



Non Commissioned Officers (NCOs did not exist per se, but the signifer and others provided the function) assisted the officers and were known as principales and received extra pay. The standard-bearer carried the signum of the unit, which served both as a rallying point for the soldiers and to communicate simple visual commands in battle. The task of carrying the signum in battle was as dangerous then as in later mediaeval armies, as the soldier had to stand in the first rank and could carry only a small shield. It may not be coincidental that a there was a large number of trainee standard-bearers; but these men also functioned as bankers.


The testudo (turtle)


When attacking a fortified town or a heavily defended enemy position, the legionaries might arrange their shields to form a box covering their heads and all sides: this was called the testudo, (tortoise) in Latin. Moving the shields apart just enough to allow their swords to poke through, the Romans used the same stabbing technique that was so effective in regular battle. The testudo was remarkably effective and was the forerunner of the modern tank, since they both enabled an armoured offence. While the cohorts were 'pinning' their enemy, each commanding legate could manoeuvre his own cavalry to outflank the enemy and attack some exposed vulnerable point.[9]

Roman commanders maintained large reserves, and knew that in close combat men became exhausted after 15 minutes. To gain time to deploy their reserves the legions could resort to stabbing with the gladius sword. The gladius, stabbing tactic was essentially defensive and far less tiring than the barbarian slashing technique.

The legions often won by their well-timed use of reserves, which they based on the expectation that their first two lines would hold and pin the enemy for about 15 minutes. At the key moment, the Roman commander would commit his reserves to literally massacre the front-rank of the exhausted enemy. The Germanic tribes lacked the discipline to control their own reserves effectively and their tribal leadership was often leading from their front and were often killed by the timely, arriving Roman reserves. Without their leaders, the enemy usually broke and ran.[10]

The Legions



Beginning with Caius Julius Caesar's era, I have built a table showing 94 basic imperial legion histories of creation, location, engagements, and final disposition.[11] These data should serve as a useful general reference.[12] In the second and third centuries BC republican legions were temporary citizen levies, normally raised by the senate for specific campaigns and then disbanded. after them. One of the sitting consuls would command the temporary army, despite questionable command qualifications. The republican armies produced decidedly mixed results and serious change was instituted in the first century BC. I have divided the legion data in a table as follows: Caesar to the year of four emperors (59 BC-69 AD); the civil wars of 69 AD to the restoration of power under Lucius Septimius Severus (69-193); and finally to the successful partition of the Western Empire (193-455). [9] It should be noted that by c320 the legion strength had been reduced to 400-500 men, or cohort-size.[13] The legions' reduction in size was introduced by Diocletian by his expansion of the army to defend the empire after the empire had been formally divided into East and West.

In 107 BC, an experienced general and statesman, Gaius Marius, introduced a series of senatorially-approved reforms to improve the legions' organisation, mobility and military efficiency.[14] A newly standarised legion would have 6,000 men (see graph below), including 5,200 (legionaries) soldiers organised into centuries of 80 men, and cohorts of six centuries. The men would carry their own food, weapons, and personal equipment, and require only a limited logistical support. The state would train, equip, and pay soldiers for a career of first 16 years, which was later raised to 20 years. The previous recruit requirements had been based on landed wealth, and the newly enfranchised Roman poor quickly volunteered and created a standing army. These reformed legions were then able to institute continuous, professional military training, focus creating improved standards of weapons development and supply common weapons to their soldiers. A more sophisticated change was to extend citizenship to allies, who fought for Rome for a full service career. Honourably retiring soldiers would also be granted some land, usually in newly-conquered areas. (Those retiring to their land-grants would thus help to Romanise the new areas.) Officers pay was also greatly increased. Lastly, to support static garrisons Augustus ordered a series of fortresses built across the empire, and, of course, each legion built a fortified night camp every day when on the march.

Legionary aquila


All Roman armies would then consist of 2-6 existing and well-trained and equipped legions. Marius standardised the legions' symbols and each legion was given an eagle of silver, or bronze, which was carried on a staff. In a time of poor communications symbols were used to signal orders and to lose an eagle in battle was the ultimate dishonour. Every legion had a baggage train of c525 mules, or about 1 mule for every 10 legionaries to improve mobility. The senate further appointed republican senators as commanding generals to form any additional legions, however, and they had to make their own private pay arrangements with the men. Naturally the soldiers' loyalties were to the source of their money and some generals became very powerful: Caesar was the archetype, powerful republican general. Caesar and two other partners (Pompey and Crassus) formed a triumverate of power in Rome and manipulated their political power to extend Caesar's legions beyond the norm. Command of static legions in distant military campaigns resulted in the allegiance of those units migrating from Rome to the generals. These commanders frequently fell out with each other and started civil wars to seize control of the state. Civil wars led to the end of the republic and the rise of imperial controls.

The Roman army consisted of two basic heavy infantry parts: the legios, and the auxiliae. (There were additional smaller pieces such as the equitatus (cavalry) and various light infantry or archers.) The legions included a significant percentage of skilled (and better paid) tradesmen and engineers, and most were manned by Roman citizens (but not necessarily Italians); but the auxiliaries were typically manned by non-citizens and were not as well equipped. The legions were deliberately intended to be independent units, able to build their own roads, bridges, artillery, siege-towers, and forts wherever they went. Outside their permanent garrisons each legion built a fortified camp every night. These camps included ditches, ramparts, sharpened-stake obstacles, a protected entry gate, and waterproof, goatskins tents for the men. The camp provided nightly protection, a defensive position, and if required a refuge for the next-day's battle - should it go wrong.

Each man wore basic armour, shield, and helmet and carried his own weapons which weighed an average 30.4 kg. The soldiers also carried three days food and wine, cooking utensils, eating items, spare clothing, and personal things for an additional 13.6 kg. On top of that weight in some campaigns he carried his own engineering tools such as a pick, axe, saw, chain, basket, etc for building the defensive positions, roads, and siege equipment. These latter tools were an additional weight of perhaps 6 kg.[15] With the total weight of 50 kg he was still expected to march at a rate of either 29 kms, or 35 kms in five hours and then fight a battle![16] After a typical 16-25-year career a soldier could anticipate a grant of land and a tax-free pension as well. An auxilia could expect Roman citizenship for himself and his family, which granted considerable freedom and security.

Octavian Augustus increasingly assumed command of the Roman army after defeating Mark Anthony's Egyptian army in 30 BC. In 30 BC there were about 60 legions, which Octavian soon reduced the number of legions to 28, while he also regularised pay, service, and pensions for his soldiers. Previously Republican generals had had the right to raise their own legions, albeit with consent from the senate, but this ended with the new emperor. From Augustus forward only the emperor had the authority to raise new units and they, of course, were then dependent upon him alone for pay and reward. Augustus' legions had 60 centuries, each of which had 80 legionaries (the first cohort had five double-sized centuries), so at full strength a legion had 5,200 fighting men. However, each legion also had its own equitatus (cavalry) of 120 men (they served as the commander's bodyguard, messengers, and scouts), plus the the commanding legate (a senator) and his staff of six tribunes, the 120 slaves per each of ten cohorts, auxiliaries, and attached specialists, so that a legion on campaign might have 6,000 men at full strength.

Legion Organisation

Typical Legion Cohort Deployment: c100 BC-200 AD


HQ = Legate, 6 tribunes, 120 equites, training centurions & junior staff
Legio Cohort 1 = 800 men in 5 x 160-man centuries
Legio Cohort 2-10 = 480 men in 6 x 80-man centuries
Auxilia Cohort 1 = 480 men
Auxilia 2 = 16 cavalry troops of 32 men & horses
Auxilia 3 = 1 x cohort + 4 cavalry troops

The legion structure changed considerably over the life of imperial Rome, and yet there was still a basic consistency. Consistency was achieved by training and discipline, basic organisation, technological excellence, political control, and Roman infrastructure. The strength of the legions changed, but not its basic structure and mix of military and political leadership. Many Roman roads and water supply systems are still in use, albeit most have been repaired. Armies around the world have adopted Roman approaches to training and standardisation of many operational procedures. In their time Roman armies generally had the best equipment and 'state-of-the-art' technology. The typical Augustan legion structure is shown here.[17] As the empire came under military attack from 'barbarian' tribes and economic stress crippled the economy in the third century General Diocletian seized power in 284 as emperor. Diocletian decided that the empire had grown too big and was too much for one man. Diocletian split the empire in two with Maximian named as a junior caesar in 285. Diocletian raised new legions to provide for both Eastern and Western field armies were only c500 men and were no longer fully armored heavy infantry. Instead, they were often converted to light infantry or archers.

There are several operational features implicit in both the drawing below and Roman history. (There would be additional light troops, perhaps from the legion's own auxilia or as additional army units, deployed as skirmishers in front of the legion. The legion would also deploy its own artillery (various types of catapults, or ballistae). The cohort deployment shows gaps between the cohorts, and reserve elements to the rear. The gaps allowed each cohort to manoeuvre, the skirmishers to withdraw if pressed too hard, and commanders to move to the front as required. The reserve auxiliary units could: remain as a fourth line of defence; be manouevered to fill in gaps in senior lines in the event of major casualties; or (especially the cavalry) manouevered to a flank around the end of the enemy's line. The function of the first lines was to 'fix' the enemy and force the commitment of enemy reserves, to create opportunities for the cohort's reserves. The first cohort was structured in five larger centuries to give it the extra control and weight to fix the enemy, or create a gap.

There was one other additional legionary element: the 5-6,000 civilian camp followers per legion during the early empire. Augustus forbid marriage for his soldiers, so there could be no permanent home for their women and children. Additionally there were prostitutes, servants. -the military slaves, and 'lixae'. Lixae were the licensed men who seized crops, cattle, wine, and slaves, for re-sale to the legion.

Although there was a designated legate to command the legion and centurions to command the centuries, there were no cohort commanders. Once a plan was agreed, the legion would fight with a single commander and the cohorts would not be manouevered independently. The centuries' function was to kill and retain its own organisation. For rare independent cohort deployments presumably either a tribune or staff centurion would be tasked to command the unit as a miniature legion. The centurion casualty rate was very high in combat as they led from the right of the front rank and wore distinctive helmets and other rank indicators.


1           Isaac Asimov, The Roman Empire, pp.4-5. See also Servius Tullus at,

2          Avle Velimna's article 'Considerations about the Etruscan Army' at Etruria, Ancient Worlds Rome,, and Tanaquil Sergius' subsequent 'Pictures to Avle Velimna's article'.

3          See The Roman Empire, The Roman Army at,; and Richard Hooker. Washington State University. Rome The Punic Wars at,

4           The Roman Empire, The Roman Army at,

5            Ibid.

6           Asimov, op. cit., pp.4-5. Asimov notes that Octavian reduced the army to 28 legions and a strength of c400,000 men. The Geocities Roman Army website at,, is a prime source for a detailed discussion of legion strengths.

7          Ross Cowan Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, p. 7.

8           See Ross Cowan, Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, and also Ross Cowan, Imperial Roman Legionary, AD 161-284, Michael Simkins, The Roman Army, from Caesar to Trajan.

9           For a discussion of legion tactics and fighting skills see Ross Cowan, Roman Battle Tactics 109 BC-AD 313; and The Roman Empire, The Roman Army at,

10        Ibid.

 11       See: The Roman legions at,;, %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegions, List of Roman legions, at,; UNRV History, iiiparthica, Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atla s of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Gwyn Morgan, 69 AD, The Year of Four Emperors, Theodor Mommsen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War. The Brainy Encyclopedia, encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia,, Roman Place Names, http://, Jona Lendering,, Wikipedia,, Wikipedia, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, at, The FreeDictionary.Com,, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions,, Roman%20legions, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies Pécs Sopianae, 1-8 September 2003,, De Imperatoribus Romanis, at, Legio Octae Augusta at,

12        My sources for legion deployments, locations, and other details have been construed from the following sources:, %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, The Roman legions at,; Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegions, UNRV History, iiiparthica; List of Roman legions, at,; Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atlas of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War; The Brainy Encyclopedia, encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia,, Roman Place Names, http://, Jona Lendering,, Wikipedia,, Wikipedia,, The FreeDictionary.Com,, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions,, Roman%20legions, at,; 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, at, Michael Simkins, The Roman Army, from Caesar to Trajan(Revised Edition), Ross Cowan, for both Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, and Imperial Roman Legionary, AD 161-284, Duncan B Campbell, Roman Legionary Fortesses, 27 BC-AD 378.

13        Ross Cowan, Roman Battle Tactics 109 BC-AD 313, p.3.

14        See Theodor Mommesen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, p. 386. See the Notitia Dignitatum at, to detail fifth century Legion details. See also Marian reforms at,; and UNRV History, The Roman Empire, Marius Reforms the Legions at,

15        Ross Cowan, Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, p. 43.

16        Ibid, p. 11.

17        Adapted from Michael Simkins, The Roman Army, p. 10.

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