ROMAN LEGIONS: 59 BC-69 AD

Data Organisation

The legions identified below are organised by their historically-assigned seniority number and title.[1] (The Romans used both IV and IIII and some legions are shown as either. I have used IV throughout.) Since several different units were assigned the same number over time, the duplicates by number are further organised alphabetically by title. Several earlier republican units were reconsituted by Octavian (Augustus) and I have shown some former honorifics awarded under earlier titles. I have portrayed the legions against the reigns of significant emperors to provide some chronology and context to legionary actions. I have selected the emperors arbitrarily by their historical significance.[2] I have been greatly constrained by data bulk and have not included most of the confusing internal civil war actions.[3] Legions were often awarded honorifics to commemorate some special campaign, or characteristic, however, not all of these 'nicknames' were used as some seemed more important than others: searches require some flexibility. Many units received 5-10 such titles and they are not usually all noted.

The legions shown below were the primary units in the Roman army order of battle for the early imperium, however Diocletian instituted major organisational changes in size and function and thereby created additional new, smaller 'legions'. As the empire became too large to control easily and leadership was split amongst different men there were major changes in the field army. Diocletian split the army into east and west to confront the Germans and Persians, the size of the legions was greatly reduced, the legions were generally assigned to permanent garrisons (Castra legionaria), and the number of legions was increased. By c320 the legion strength had been reduced to c500 men, or roughly cohort size.[4] Seventy legions formed the army of the East, and a further 61 legions formed the army of the West.[5] I have focused here on the pre-Diocletian heavy legions. Because the empire was then under attack from a variety of enemies (including several German and Persian tribes), late-empire, legionary information is sparse. The post-Diocletian, 1,000-man 'field army' legions are noted in italics.

The unit titles, or honorifics, awarded often note either: the country of original recruitment; or some significant national people defeated by the unit; or unique initial dedication or occurrence; or an imperially-assigned honour for battlefield performance.

Legions: 59 BC-69 AD

Caius Julius Caesar 49 BC/44 BC

Octavian Augustus 27 BC/14 AD

Tiberius 14 AD/37 AD

Claudius 41/54

Nero 54/68

I Germanica

48 BC, Raised by Caesar in Italy, 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium & Pharsallus, 46-45 BC, Spain, 38-36, Sciliy, 46-45 BC, Spain Cantabrian War, 38-36 BC, Sciliy, 25-16 BC, Spain, 16 BC-9 AD, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) & Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 6 AD, Marcomannian War, Czech Republic, 9-69 AD, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany), 9-28 AD, Colonia Agrippinensis (Koln, Germany), 28-69 AD, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 21 AD, Gallic Rebellion, 28-69 AD, Garrison Bonna (Bonn, Germany) 28-69 AD, Garrison Bonna (Bonn, Germany)

I Italica Prima

        66 AD, Raised by Nero, 68-69, Garrison Lugdunum (Lyon, France)

I Macriana Liberatrix

        68 AD, Raised by Macer in rebellion, at Ammaedara (Haidra, Tunesia, Africa) 69 AD, Disbanded by Galba.

II Augusta (Sabina)

  43 BC, Raised by Pansa, 42 AD, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), 41 AD, Siege of Perugia (Italy), 25-13 BC, Colonia Iulia Gemella Acci (Guadix, Spain), 9-17 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 9-17 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 14-16 AD, Germmanic Campaigns, 17-43 AD, Argentoratum, (Strasbourg, Germany), 17-43 AD: Argentoratum, (Strasbourg, Germany), 43 AD, Invasion Britannia, 48-75 AD: Isca Dumnoniorum, (Exeter, England), 48-75 AD: Isca Dumnoniorum, (Exeter, England), 60 AD, Defeated Boudicca, 66-75, Cohort at Glevum Colphia, (Gloucester, England),

III Augusta, Liberatrix, Iterum Pia, Iterum Vindex

  43 BC, Raised by Pansa, 43-30 BC, Civil War, 30 BC-c75 AD, Ammaedara (Haidra, Tunesia), 30 BC-c75 AD, Ammaedara (Haidra, Tunesia), 17-24 AD, Battles with Tacfarinas' Moors & Numidians, 18 AD, Decimated (1/10 killed) for cowardice, 30 BC-c75 AD, Ammaedara (Haidra, Tunesia), 38-61 AD, Berber Wars, 31 BC-c75 AD, Ammaedara (Haidra, Tunesia), 65 AD, Detachment to Alexandria Egypt,

III Cyrenaica

  c38 BC, Raised by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in Cyrenaica, 30 BC-8 AD, Thebes (Luxor, Egypt), 26-25 BC, Cohort to Arabia Felix (Yemen), 24 BC, Defeated Nubian Invasion of Egypt & Occupied Napata (Karima, Sudan), 8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 63 AD, Cohort in Parthian Campaign, 66-70 AD, Judean War in Alexandria,

III Gallica Felix

49 BC, Raised by Caesar in Gaul, 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium (Albania) & Pharsalus (Greece) Defeated Pompey, 45 BC, Battle of Munda (Spain) Defeated Republicans to aid Caesar to be Dictator, 42 BC, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), 41 BC, Siege of Perugia (Italy), 36 BC, Failed Parthian Campaign, c30 BC-c14 AD, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 20 BC, Syrian Parthian Battles, 42 BC, c14-c56 AD, ?Emesa, (Homs, Syria), 32-36 AD, Jewish War Judea, c14-c56 AD, ? Emesa, (Homs, Syria), 58-66 AD, Ziata, Armenia, 58-60 AD, Armenian War, 67-70 AD, Oescus, (Near Cherkovitsa, Bulgaria), 61-66 AD, Parthian Campaign, 68-69 AD, Defeated Sarmation Roxolani,

IV Macedonica

48 BC, Raised by Caesar, 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium & Pharsalus, 48-44 BC, Macedonia, 44 BC, Italy, 43 BC, Failed Battle of Modena, 42 BC, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), 31 BC, Battle of Actium (Greece), 30 BC-42 AD, Hispana (Herrera de Pisuerga, Spain), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, 30 BC-42 AD, Hispana Tarraconensis (Herrera de Pisuerga, Spain), 30 BC-42 AD, Hispana Tarraconensis (Herrera de Pisuerga, Spain), c42-68 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), c42-68 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 68 AD, Italy,

IV Scythica, Parthica

  c42 BC, Raised by Marcus Antony for Parthian Campaign (Iran), c35-c32 BC, Probable Italian Scythian Campaign, 30 BC-9 AD, Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 29-17 BC, Dacian War, 6-9 AD, Illyrian War (Croatia), 9-55 AD, Bulgaria, 9-55 AD, Bulgaria, Dacian Wars 9-55 AD, Bulgaria, Dacian Wars 9-55 AD, Bulgaria, 56-66 AD, Laodicae (Latakia, Syria), 58-60 AD, Armenian War, 62 AD, Defeated by Parthians Battle of Rhandeia, 66 AD, Defeated in Jewish War Judea, 66-256, Garrison Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey),

V Alaudae

52 BC, Raised by Caesar in France, 52 BC, Vercingetorix & Gallic Battles (France), 49 BC, Invasion of Italy, 49 BC, Battle of Dyrrhachium, 47-46 BC, (Scipio & Cato) Africa, 46 BC, Battle of Thapsus, 17 March 45 BC, Battle of Munda, 43 BC, Failed Battle of Mutina, 42 BC, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), c35 BC, Berytus (Beirut, Lebanon), 31 BC, Failed Battle of Actium, 30-19 BC, (Mérida Hispana, Spain), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, 19 BC, Belgium, c17 BC-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 6-9 AD, Marcomannic War Czech Republic, c17 BC-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 14-16 AD, Re-built Xanten, 28 AD, Frisian Revolt (The Netherlands), c17 BC-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 47 AD, Successful Frisian War, (The Netherlands), c48/49 AD, Built canal Leiden/Voorburg (The Netherlands), c17 BC-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), Vitellius Armenia 61, 69-70 AD, Batavian Revolt, 69-70 AD, Defeated by Batavians w heavy casualties

V Macedonica, Pia Constans

  43 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 30 BC-6 AD, Macedonia, 29-27 BC, Scythian War?, 20 BC, Parthian War?, 6-61 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 6-61 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 45 AD, Thrace (Greece), 6-61 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 6-61 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 62 AD, Cohort Surrendered at Pontus (Armenia), 66-70 AD, Jewish War Judea,

VI Ferrata, Fidelas, Constans, Hispaniensis

52 BC, Raised by Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul, (Southern France), 52 BC, Siege of Alesia (France) & Capture Vercingetorix, 52-50 BC, Gallic War, 49 BC, Battle of Ilerda (Spain), 48 BC, Battle of Dyrrhachium, 9 August 49 BC, Battle of Pharsalus, 48-47 BC, Alexandria (Egypt), 47 BC, Battle of Zela (Pontus, Turkey), 17 March 45 BC, Battle of Munda, 44 BC, Reconstituted by Lepidus, 43-c32 BC, Judea (Israel), 36 BC, Parthian War, 31 BC, Greece, c31 BC-69 AD, Rhaphanaea (Near Homs, Syria), c31 BC-69 AD, Rhaphanaea (Near Homs, Syria), c31 BC-69 AD, Rhaphanaea (Near Homs, Syria), c31 BC-c69 AD, Rhaphanaea (Near Homs, Syria), 58-59 AD, Armenian War, 66 AD, Defeated in Judea,

VI Victrix, Hispaniensis, Pia Fidelas, Fidelas, Constans, Britannica,

  41 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, 41 BC, Siege of Perugia (Italy), 38-36 BC, Sciliy, 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 30 BC-68 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, 30 BC-68 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), 31 BC-68 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), 31 BC-68 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), 68-69 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain),

VII Claudia, Pia Fidelas, Constans, Paterna,

Raised by Caesar 59 BC, 58-55 BC, Gaul, 55-54 BC, Britain, 53-52 BC, Gaullic Campaigns Capture Bourges (France) Capture Vercingetorix), 52 BC, Paris, 51 BC, Belleovaci Campaign (France), 49 BC, Battle of Ilerda (Spain), 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium (Greece) & Pharsalus (Italy), 46 BC, Battle at Thapsacus (Africa), 44 BC, Reconsituted by Octavian Augustus, 43 BC, Greece, 41 BC, Italy, c39 BC, Balkans, 9-58 AD, Tilurium (Sinj, Croatia) & Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), 9-58 AD, Tilurium (Sinj, Croatia) & Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), 9-58 AD, Tilurium (Sinj, Croatia) & Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), c58-c250 AD, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia),

VII (Hispana, Galbiana), Gemina, Pia Felix

        10 June 68 AD, Raised by Galba, October 68, Rome,

VIII, Augusta, Gallica, Bis Augusta,

59 BC, Raised by Caesar, 58 BC, Invaded Gaul, 49 BC, Italy, 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium & Pharsalus, 46 BC, Africa, 44 BC, Disbanded. 44 BC, Reconsituted by Octavian Augustus, 44 BC, Dalmatia, 43 BC, Italy, 42 BC, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), 31 BC, Battle of Actium Greece, c30 BC, Tunesia, 25-13 BC, Cohort Hispana (Spain), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, c15 BC, Phoenicia (Lebanon), 9-45 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), c AD, Marcomannian Wars (Czech Republic), 9-45 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), 9-45 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), 45-70 AD, Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), c43 AD, Cohort Britannia (England, with Claudius and 38 war elephants), 45-49 AD, Crimea, 45-70 AD, Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 68-69 AD, Defeated Sarmation Roxolani,

IX (Triumphalis), Hispana, Macedonica.

59 BC, Preceded Caesar, 58-49 BC, Gallic Wars, 49 BC, Battle of Ilerda (Spain), 49/48 BC, Italy, 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium & Pharsalus, 46 BC, African Campaign, 45 BC, Disbanded. 41 BC, Reconsituted by Octavian Augustus, 41 BC, Sicily, c40-31 BC, Macedonica (Greece), 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 30-19 BC, Cantabrian War Spain, 19 BC-9 AD, Cohort Rhine (Germany), 9-43 AD, Siscia, (Sisak, Croatia), 9-43 AD, Siscia, (Sisak, Croatia), 21-24 AD, Cohorts in Tacfarinas War Algeria, 9-43 AD, Siscia, (Sisak, Croatia), 43 AD, Invasion of Britain, 43-c65 AD, Longthorpe & Newton-on-Trent England, 43-c65 AD, Longthorpe & Newton-on-Trent England, 60 AD, Boudiccan Revolt & Failed Battle at Londinium (London, England), 65-71 AD, Lindum (Lincoln, England),

X Fretensis, Pia Fidelas

  42 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, 40 BC, Sicily, Battle of Mylae, 31 BC, Battle of Actium Greece, 31-c22 BC, Colonia Veneria (Cremona, Northern Italy), c21 BC-58 AD, Cyrrhus (Kuros, Turkey), 6 AD, Jewish War Judea, c21 BC-58 AD, Cyrrhus (Kuros, Turkey), c21 BC-58 AD, Cyrrhus (Kuros, Turkey), c21 BC-58 AD, Cyrrhus (Kuros, Turkey), 58-c66 AD, Armenia & Parthia, 66-74 AD, Jewish War Judea, 66-67 AD, Ptolemais (Akko/Acre, Israel), 67-68 AD, Caesarea (Israel),

X (Equestris), Gemina, Pia Fidelas

59 BC, Raised by Caesar, 58 BC, 57 BC, Nervian Campaign (Germany), Gaul, 55-54 BC, (X Standard Bearer) Britain, 49 BC, Battle of Ilerda (Spain), 9 August 48 BC, Battle of Pharsalus, 46 BC, 46 BC, Africa, 45 BC, Battle of Munda (Spain), 45 BC, Disbanded. in Narbonne, (France), 43 BC, Reconstituted by Lepidus, 42 BC, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), c40 BC, Parthian Campaign, 36-34 BC, Armenian War, 30-c25 BC, Petavonium (Zaragoza, Spain), c25 BC-c63 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, c25 BC-c63 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, c25 BC-c63 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), c25 BC-c63 AD, Bracara Augusta Hispana Tarraconensis (Braga, Portugal), c63 AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria),

XI (Neptune), Claudia, Pia Fidelas

58 BC, Raised by Caesar for Swiss Campaign, 57 BC, Nervian Campaign, 57-50 BC, Gallic Campaigns, 49 BC, Invaded Italy, 48 BC, Battles of Dyrrhachium & Pharsalus, 42 BC, Reconstituted by Octavian Augustus, 42 AD, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), 41 AD, Siege of Perugia (Italy), 31 BC, Battle of Actium (Greece), 30 BC-9 AD, Balkans, 9-69 AD, Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), 9-69 AD, Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia) 9-69 AD, Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), 9-69 AD, Burnum, 68 AD, Batavian Revolt, Germany

XII (Victrix), Fulminata, Certa Constans,

58 BC, Raised by Caesar, 58 BC, Swiss Campaign, 57-49 BC, Gaul, 49 BC, Invasion Italy, 9 August 48 BC, Battle of Pharsalus, 44 BC, Disbanded. 44 BC, Reconstituted by Lepidus, 44-43 BC, Gaul, 41 AD, Siege of Perugia (Italy), c30 BC-c1 AD, Babylon (Cairo, Egypt), c1-66 AD, Raphana (Quailibah, Jordan), 14-66 AD, Garrison Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 14-66 AD, Garrison Raphana (Quailibah, Jordan), 14-66 AD, Garrison Raphana (Quailibah, Jordan), 58-59 AD, Armenaian War & Capture of Yerevan & Tigranocerta, 62 AD, Surrendered to Parthians, 66 AD, Defeated by Jews (Judea), 66-74 AD, Laodicae (Syria), 66-74 AD, Jewish Revolt, Judea,

XIII Gemina, Martia Victrix,

57 BC, Raised by Caesar, 56 BC, Belgica & Gaul, 52 BC, Siege of Alesia (France) & Capture Vercingetorix, 49 BC, Battle at Rubicon River, Italy, 45 BC, Battle of Munda, 41 BC, Reconstituted by Octavian Augustus, 41 BC, Sicily, 40-16 BC, Illyricum, 15 BC-9 AD, Labacum (Lublijana, Slovenia), 6 AD, Marcommanian War (Czech Republic), 6-9 AD, Dacian War, 09-16 AD, Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg, Germany), 09-16 AD, Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg, Germany), 16-45 AD, Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), c16-45 AD, Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), 45-89 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), 45-89 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia),

XIV Germina, Pia Fidelas

57 BC, Raised by Caesar, 56 BC, Gaullic War Belgium, 54 BC, Destroyed by Amborix in Belgium, 53 BC, Reconstituted, 52 BC, Siege of Alesia (France) & Capture Vercingetorix, 49 BC, Battle of Ilerda Spain, 48 BC, Albanian War, 46 BC, African Campaign, 41 BC, Reconstituted by Octavian Augustus, 31 BC, Dalmatia, 6 AD, Marcomannic War Czech Republic, 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 21 AD, Gaul, 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), c39-41 AD, Germannic-Chatti War, 43 AD, Invaded Britain, 44 AD, Manduessedum (Mancetter, England), c47 AD, Lindum (Lincoln, England), c50-67 AD, Viroconium (Wroxeter, England), c50-67 AD, Viroconium (Wroxeter, England), 60 AD, Defeated Boudicca, 67-68 AD, Balkans,

XV

53 BC, Raised by Caesar, 49/48, Destroyed in Africa,        

XV Apollinaris, Pia Fidelas

  c41 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, c 40-39 BC, Sicily, 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 31 BC-6 AD, Dalmatia (Tilurium) (Gardun, Croatia), 6 AD, Marcomannic War Czech Republic, 9-14 AD, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 14-63 AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 14-63 AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 14-63 AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 63-64 AD, Syria, 64-66 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 66-70 AD, Jewish War Judea,

XV Primigenia

      39 AD, Raised by Caligula, 39 BC, Battle at Weisbaden (Germany), 39-69 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), Colonia Agrippina (Cologne, Germany), Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 43-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), Colonia Agrippina (Cologne, Germany), Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands),

XVI

54 BC, Raised by Caesar, 49/48, Destroyed in Africa,        

XVI Gallica

  41 AD, Raised by Octavian Augustus, 41 BC, Sicily, c15 BC-9 AD, Gaul (Germany), 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 43-69 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), Colonia Agrippina (Cologne, Germany), Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 9-43 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 43-69 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), Colonia Agrippina (Cologne, Germany), Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany),

XVII

  c41 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, c35 BC, Sicily, 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 31-15 BC, Gaul, c15 BC, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), September 9 AD, Legion Destroyed by the Cheruscii at Battle of Teutoburg Forest, near Osnabrück, Germany.      

XVIII

  c41 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, c35 BC, Sicily, 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 31-15 BC, Gaul, c15 BC, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), September 9 AD, Legion Destroyed by the Cheruscii at Battle of Teutoburg Forest, near Osnabrück, Germany.      

XVIII Libyca,

  c41 BC, Raised by Marcus Antony, 31 BC, Battle of Actium, 31, Disbanded.      

XIX

  c41 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, c35 BC Sicily, 31 BC Battle of Actium, 30 BC, Near Pisa (Italy), c25 BC, Colonia Agrippina (Koln, Germany), c15-8 BC, 4-5 AD, German Rhine Campaigns, 6 AD, Marcomannic War Czech Republic, September 9 AD, Legion Destroyed by the Cheruscii at Teutoburg Forest Battle, near Osnabrück, Germany.      

XX Valeria Victrix, Antoniniana

  30 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, 25-13 BC, Cantabrian Campaigns Spain, 13-5 BC, Cohorts to Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), c5 BC-9 AD, Aquileia (Near Venice, Italy), 6 AD, Marcomannian War Czech Republic, 9-14 AD, Colonia Agrippina (Koln, Germany), c5 BC-9 AD, Aquileia (Near Venice, Italy), 9-14 AD, Colonia Agrippina (Koln, Germany), 14-43 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), 14-16 AD, Germanni Campaigns, 21 AD, Turoni Tribe Revolt Gaul, 14-c34 AD, Oppidum Ubiorum (Köln, Germany), c34 AD-43 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), 43 AD, Invaded Britain, 43-60 AD, Garrison Britain at Camulodunum (Colchester, England) and a fortress at Kingsholm (Gloucester), 43-68 AD, Garrison Britain at Camulodunum (Colchester, England) and a new fortress at Kingsholm (Gloucester), 60 AD, Defeated Queen Boudicca, 67-83 AD, Viroconium (Wroxeter, England),

XXI Rapax

  30 BC, Raised by Octavian Augustus, c30-c15 BC, Spain, 25-15 BC, Cantabrian Campaigns Spain, 15 BC-9 AD, Castra Regina (Regensburg, Germany), 6 AD, Marcomannian War Czech Republic, 9-43 AD, Vetera, (Xanten, Germany), 9-43 AD, Vetera, (Xanten, Germany), 14-16 AD, Germanni Campaigns, 21 AD, Turoni Tribe Revolt Gaul, 44-70 AD, Garrison Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), 44-70 AD, Garrison Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland),

XXII Deiotariana

48 BC, Raised by King Deiotarus in Galatia (Turkey), Ally in Unsuccessful Pontic Wars, 47 BC, Battle of Zela, 26-25 BC, Attack on Arabia Felix, 25 BC, Reconstituted by Octavian Augustus, c25 BC-c130 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 22 BC, Nubian War Captured capital Napata, c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 63, Parthian War, 67-70 AD, Vexillatio of 1,000 Jewish War, 69-70, Siege of Jerusalem,

XXII Primigenia, Pia Fidelas

      39 AD, Raised by Caligula, 39-c290 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 39 AD, Battle at Weisbaden (Germany), 40-41 AD, Chatti War (Germany), 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 70 AD, Carnuntum (Near Vienna, Austria),
XXVII, Martia? 46 BC, Africa, 44 BC, Joined Octavian Augustus, 44 BC, Dalmatia, 43 BC, Italy, 42 BC, Battle of Philippi (Macedonia), 31 BC, Battle of Actium Greece, c30 BC, Tunesia, 25-13 BC, Cohort Hispana (Spain), 25-13 BC, Cantabrian War, c15 BC, Phoenicia (Lebanon), 9-45 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), c AD, Marcomannian Wars (Czech Republic),        
XXIX 46 BC, Africa        
XXX Classica 48 BC, Raised by Julius Caesar, 41 BC, Disbanded.        
XXXV 46 BC, Africa, 44-41 BC, Supported Marcus Antony in the Triumviri,        

ENDNOTES

1               See: The Roman legions at, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/legions.htm; Imperium-Romanum.com, http://imperiumromanum.com/militaer/heer/legionen01_01.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DI%2Baugusta%2Bgermanica %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegionshttp://www.romancoins.info/VIC-Legions.html, List of Roman legions, at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_legions; UNRV History, http://www.unrv.com/military/legions2.php# iiiparthica, Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atla s of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Gwyn Morgan, 69 AD, The Year of Four Emperors, Theodor Mommsen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War. The Brainy Encyclopedia, www.brainyencyclopedia.com/ encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia, http://legio-iii-cyrenaica.wikiverse.org/, Roman Place Names, http:// translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcolonia%2Bacci%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D, Jona Lendering, http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html, Wikipedia, http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:http%3A//legio-xxii-deotariana.wikiverse.org/, Wikipedia, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest, The FreeDictionary.Com, http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Legio%20XX%20Valeria%20Victrix, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vii_gemina.html, TheFreeDictionary.com.http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/List%20of%20 Roman%20legions, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies Pécs Sopianae, 1-8 September 2003, http://limesxix.btk.pte.hu/program.html, De Imperatoribus Romanis, at http://www.roman-emperors.org/assobd.htm, Legio Octae Augusta at, http://www.roman-britain.org/military/leg8augusta.htm.

2           For individual histories of the emperors see De Imperatoribus Romanis at, http://www.roman-emperors.org/impindex.htm.

3           My sources for legion deployments, locations, and other details have been construed from the following sources: Imperium-Romanum.com, http://imperiumromanum.com/militaer/heer/legionen01_01.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DI%2Baugusta%2Bgermanica %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, The Roman legions at, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/legions.htm; Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegionshttp://www.romancoins.info/VIC-Legions.html, UNRV History, http://www.unrv.com/military/legions2.php# iiiparthica; List of Roman legions, at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_legions; Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atlas of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War; The Brainy Encyclopedia, www.brainyencyclopedia.com/ encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia, http://legio-iii-cyrenaica.wikiverse.org/, Roman Place Names, http:// translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcolonia%2Bacci%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D, Jona Lendering, http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html, Wikipedia, http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:http%3A//legio-xxii-deotariana.wikiverse.org/, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest, The FreeDictionary.Com, http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Legio%20XX%20Valeria%20Victrix, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vii_gemina.html, TheFreeDictionary.com.http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/List%20of%20 Roman%20legions, http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/content/view/152/113/Aemy.com at, http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/content/view/152/113/; 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, at http://limesxix.btk.pte.hu/program.html, Michael Simkins, The Roman Army, from Caesar to Trajan(Revised Edition), Ross Cowan, for both Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, and Imperial Roman Legionary, AD 161-284, Duncan B Campbell, Roman Legionary Fortesses, 27 BC-AD 378.

4          Ross Cowan, Roman Battle Tactics 109 BC-AD 313, p.3.

5           Theodor Mommesen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, p. 386. See the Notitia Dignitatum at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notitia_Dignitatum to detail fifth century Legion details.

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