ROMAN LEGIONS: 69 AD-193

Data Organisation

The legions identified below are organised by their historically-assigned seniority number and title.[1] (The Romans used both IV and IIII and some legions are shown as either. I have used IV throughout.) Since several different units were assigned the same number over time, the duplicates by number are further organised alphabetically by title. Several earlier republican units were reconsituted by Octavian (Augustus) and I have shown some former honorifics awarded under earlier titles. I have portrayed the legions against the reigns of significant emperors to provide some chronology and context to legionary actions. I have selected the emperors arbitrarily by their historical significance.[2] I have been greatly constrained by data bulk and have not included most of the confusing internal civil war actions.[3] Legions were often awarded honorifics to commemorate some special campaign, or characteristic, however, not all of these 'nicknames' were used as some seemed more important than others: searches require some flexibility. Many units received 5-10 such titles and they are not usually all noted.

The legions shown below were the primary units in the Roman army order of battle for the early imperium, however Diocletian instituted major organisational changes in size and function and thereby created additional new, smaller 'legions'. As the empire became too large to control easily and leadership was split amongst different men there were major changes in the field army. Diocletian split the army into east and west to confront the Germans and Persians, the size of the legions was greatly reduced, the legions were generally assigned to permanent garrisons (Castra legionaria), and the number of legions was increased. By c320 the legion strength had been reduced to c500 men, or roughly cohort size.[4] Seventy legions formed the army of the East, and a further 61 legions formed the army of the West.[5] I have focused here on the pre-Diocletian heavy legions. Because the empire was then under attack from a variety of enemies (including several German and Persian tribes), late-empire, legionary information is sparse. The post-Diocletian, 1,000-man 'field army' legions are noted in italics.

The unit titles, or honorifics, awarded often note either: the country of original recruitment; or some significant national people defeated by the unit; or unique initial dedication or occurrence; or an imperially-assigned honour for battlefield performance.

Legions: 69 AD-193

Vespasian 69/79

Domitian 81/96

Trajan 98/117

Hadrian 117/138

Marcus Aurelius 161/180

I (Classica), Adiutrix, Pia Fidelas, Bis Constans

68 AD, Raised by Galba, 69 AD, Battle of Bedriacum, 70 AD, Batavian Revolt, c71-86 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), c71-86 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 83 AD, Germannic War, 86-c100, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 86-90 Dacian/ Sarmatian Wars 86-c100, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 101-108, Apulum (Alba Iulia, Romania), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 115-117, Parthian Wars, 118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary),

I Germanica

28-69 AD, Garrison Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 69 AD, Rome, 69 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 69-70 AD, Batavian Revolt, 70 AD, Legion Surrendered & Disbanded by Vespasian.        

I Illyricorum

        273-c420, Palmyra (Desert, Syria),

I Italica Prima

68-69 AD, Garrison Lugdunum (Lyon, France), 70 AD, Italy, 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 70 AD, Defeated by Sarmatians, 86-90 Dacian/ Sarmatian Wars 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 139-142, Cohort Built Antonine Wall in Britain, 165-174, 178-180, Dacian Wars in Romania,

I Minerva Pia Fidelas Severiana

  82, Raised by Domitian, 83-c420, Garrison Bonna (Bonn, Germany) 83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 162-166, Parthian Wars into the Albanian Caucasus, 165-175, 178-180, Marcomannic Wars, Czech Republic,

II Adiutrix Pia Fidelas

70 AD, Raised by Vespasian Ravenna Italy, 70 AD, Defeated Batavian Revolt, 70 AD, Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 70-78 AD, Lindum (Lincoln, England), 78-87 AD, Deva (Chester, England), 71-87 AD, Ordovices Revolt, Occupied Mona (Anglesey, Wales), 77-87 AD, Deva (Chester, England), 71-87, Ordovices Revolt, Occupied Mona (Anglesey, Wales), 87-102, Cohorts at Aquincum (Budapest, Hungary), & Sirmium, (Mitrovica, Albania), 87 Dacian War, 87-102, Cohorts at Aquincum (Budapest, Hungary), & Sirmium, (Mitrovica, Albania), 102-106, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 102-106, Dacian Wars, 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 117-136, Construction Projects, 118, Sarmation Campaign, 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 138-161, Cohort in Moorish War Algeria, 162-166, Parthian Wars, 171-173, Marcomannic War Czech Republic,

II Augusta (Sabina)

48-75 AD: Isca Dumnoniorum, (Exeter, England), 67-75, Cohort at Glevum Colphia, (Gloucester, England), 75-139, Legion built fortress and occupied Isca Silurum, (Caerleon, Wales), 75-139, Isca Silurum, (Caerleon, Wales), 75-139, Isca Silurum, (Caerleon, Wales), 75-139, Isca Silurum, (Caerleon, Wales), 122-128, Built Hadrian's Wall, 75-139, Isca Silurum, (Caerleon, Wales), 139-142, Built Antonine Wall, 155-158, Britons Revolt, c166-18?, Marcomannic War Czech Republic,

II Italica, Pia Fidelas

        165, Raised by Marcus Aurelius, 166-180, Marcomannic War Czech Republic, 180-c420, Lauriacum (Lorch, Austria),

II Traiana, Secunda Fortis, Antoniniana

    105, Raised by Trajan, 105-c114, Ratiaria (Archar, Bulgaria), 105-c114, Dacian Wars, 114-116, Raphanaea, (Rafniye, Syria), 115-117, c115, Probably built fort at Caparcotna, Judea (Meggido, Israel), Parthian Campaign, 117-125, Lejjun (Near Mishmar Ha'Emeq, Israel), 117-125, Judean Revolt, 125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), 132-136, Judean Revolt, 125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), 162-166, Parthian War, 194, Civil War,

III Augusta, Liberatrix, Iterum Pia, Iterum Vindex

31 BC-c75 AD, Ammaedara (Haidra, Tunesia, Africa), 71 AD, Successful war against the Garamantes, c75-98 AD, Theveste (Tebessa, Algeria), c75-98 AD, Theveste (Tebessa, Algeria), c81 AD, Cohort in Algeria, 86 AD, Annhilated Nasmondi, c75-98, Theveste (Tebessa, Algeria), 98-c301, Lambaesis (Lambese, Africa), 115, Detachment to Syria, 98-c361, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria), c118 Berber attacks, 132-136, Cohort at Jewish War Judea, 98-c361, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria), 138-161, Moorish War, c162, Detachment to Arabian Parthian Wars, 175, Marcomannian War, Czech Republic,

III Cyrenaica

8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 66-70 AD, Judean War, 8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 8-106 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 106-119, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 114-117, Parthian Campaign, 106-119, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 119-125, Alexandria (Egypt), 125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 132-136, Cohort at Jewish War in Judea, 125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria),

III Gallica Felix

67-70 AD, Oescus, (Near Cherkovitsa, Bulgaria), 70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 97-98, Parthian Campaign, 70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 132-135, Jewish War, Judea, 70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 161-166, Parthian Campaign,

III Italica, Pia Fidelas

        165, Raised by Marcus Aurelius, 165, Aquiliea, (Germany), 171-c420, Regina Castra (Regensburg, Germany), 166-180, Garrisoned Bavaria, Austria, Cohort at Salonae (Split, Croatia),

IV Flavia Felix, Firma

70 AD, Raised by Vespasian from former IV Macedonica, 70-86 AD, Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 87-89 AD, Invasion of Dacia (Romania), 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 102, Dacian War & Capture of capital Sarmizegetusa, c103, Built fort on Mures River (near Arad, Romania) to control access by Sarmatians, 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 162-166, Cohort Moorish War in Algeria, 165 Dacian War,

IV Macedonica

69-70 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 69-70 AD, Batavian Revolt 70 AD, Disbanded. for cowardice by Vespasian. 70 AD, Reconstituted as IV Flavia Felix by Vespasian.        

IV Scythica, Parthica

66-256, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 70, Antiochia (Antakya, Turkey), 66-256, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 66-256, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 114-117, Parthian War, 66-256, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 132-136, Jewish War Judea, 66-c300, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 161-166, Parthian War Capture of Ctesiphon,

V Alaudae

c17 BC-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), Vitellius Armenia 61, 69-70 AD, Batavian Revolt, 69-70 AD, Defeated w heavy casualties by Batavians. 70 AD, Disbanded by Vespasian.

c86-87 AD (Possibly reconstituted), Garrisoned Danube cSingidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 87 AD Defeated & annihilated at First Battle of Tapae (Bucova, Romania).

     

V Macedonica, Pia Constans

66-70 AD, Jewish War Judea, 70-106 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 70-106 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 88 AD, Dacian War & Invasion of Romania, 70-106 AD, Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 101-106, Dacian War Romania, 107-c161, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), 107-c161, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), 118, Roxolani War, 107-c161, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), 161-166, Parthian Wars, 167-274, Potaissa (Turda, Romania),

VI Ferrata, Fidelas, Constans, Hispaniensis

69-118, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 69 AD, Dacian War, 69 AD, Cohort Rome, 69-118, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 69-118, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 114, Armenian Campaign, 69-118, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 115-118, Arabia, 132-136, Jewish War Judea, 136-c260, Caparcotna (Lejjun, Israel), 136-c260, Caparcotna (Lejjun, Israel), 138-161, Africa, 162-165, Parthian War,

VI Victrix, Hispaniensis, Pia Fidelas, Fidelas, Constans, Britannica,

68-69 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 70-105 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), 70 AD, Defeated Batavians at Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 70-71 AD, Rebuilt Xanten fortress, 70-105 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), 89 AD, Rebellion Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 70-105 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 105-122, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 105-122, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 122-c128, Built Hadrian's Wall, 122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 122-132, Built Hadrian's Wall, 139-142, Built Antonine Wall, 155-158, British Revolt,

VII Claudia, Pia Fidelas, Constans, Paterna,

58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 88 BC, Invaded Romania Defeated Dacians, 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 102-106, Dacian War, 116, Jewish War Cyprus, 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), c161-165, Parthian War, 178-180, Germanni War (Germany),

VII (Hispana, Galbiana), Gemina, Pia Felix

69-74 AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 74-161 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 74-161 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 74-161 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 74-161 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 119 Cohort to Britain, 132-136 AD, Cohort at Lambaesis, (Batna, Algeria), 138-161 AD, Mauri War Algeria, c161-180, Legio, Leon/Hispalis, (Sevilla, Spain),

VIII, Augusta, Gallica, Bis Augusta,

45-70 AD, Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 70 AD, Defeated Batavians Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 83-85, 88-89, Chatti Wars Germany, 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 119, Cohort Built Hadrian's Wall Britain, 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France),

IX (Triumphalis), Hispana, Macedonica.

65-71 AD, Lindum (Lincoln, England), 71-120 AD, Eboracum (York, England), 78 AD, Brigantes Battle Stanwick (England), 71-120 AD, Eboracum (York, England), 83 AD, Cohort in Chatti War Monguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 71-120 AD, Eboracum (York, England), 108/109, Built fortress at York, 71-120 AD, Eboracum (York, England), 121, Cohort Noviomagus (Nijmegan, The Netherlands), 132-135, Destroyed in 2nd Jewish War.  

X Fretensis, Pia Fidelas

70 AD, Captured Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), 70-c253, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), 72-73 AD, Siege and capture of Masada (Israel), 70-c253, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), 70-c253, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), 70-c253, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), 130-136, Jewish War Judea, 70-c253, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), 166-180, Cohort in Marcomannic War Czech Republic,

X (Equestris), Gemina, Pia Fidelas

68-69 AD, Spain, 70 AD, Successful Batavian Battle Harenatium (Rindern, Germany), 70-71 AD, Harenatium (Rindern, Germany), 71-101 AD, Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 71-101 AD, Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 89 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 103, Aquincum (Budapest, Hungary), 103-118, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 105-106, Dacian Wars 118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 132-136, Cohort Juewish Revolt Judea (Israel), 118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c145, Algeria, 162, Parthian War,

XI (Neptune), Claudia, Pia Fidelas

69 AD, Burnum (Suplja Crkva, Croatia), October 69 AD, Battle at Cremona (Italy), 70 AD, Successful Batavian Battle (The Netherlands), 70-100, Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), 70-100 AD, Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), 83 AD, Chatti War, 70-100, Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), 101, Brigetio (Szony, Hungary), c105, Oescus (Near Turnu Magurele, Romania), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 106-c350, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), 106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), 132-136, Cohort Jewish War Judea (Israel), 106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria),

XII (Victrix), Fulminata, Certa Constans,

66-74 AD, Raphanaea, (Rafniye, Syria), 66-74 AD, Jewish War, Judea, 74 AD, Jerusalem, 74 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 75 AD, Albania, 74 AD-c350, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 74 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 114, Armenian Campaign, 74 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 134, Defeated Alans from Kazakhstan (Turkey), 82 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 162-166, Parthian War, c164, Cohort in Artaxata (Yerevan, Armenia),

XIII Gemina, Martia Victrix,

45-89 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), April 69, Defeated at Battle of Cremona, 70 AD, Defeated Batavians (The Netherlands), 45-89 AD, Poetovio (Ptuj, Slovenia), 88 AD, Dacian War, 89-101, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 92-93, Suebian/Sarmatian Wars, 89-101, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 102-105, Sarmizegetusa (Romania), 106-c230, Apulum (Alba Julia, Romania), c230-c420, Ratiaria (Arcar, Bulgaria), c230-c420, Possible Cohort in Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 106-c230, Apulum (Alba Julia, Romania), 115-117, Cohort in Parthian Wars, 132-136, Cohort at Jewish War Judea (Israel), 106-c230, Apulum (Alba Julia, Romania), 115-117, 161-169, Cohort in Parthian Wars, 161-169, Cohort in Parthian Wars,

XIV Germina, Pia Fidelas

69-70 AD, Viroconium (Wroxeter, England), 70 AD, Batavian Revolt & Battle Xanten Germany, 70-92 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 73-74 AD, Germannic War, 70-92 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 83-84 AD, Germannic War, 92-c94 AD, Mursa, (Osijek, Serbia), c94-106, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c93-106, Dacian Wars, c94-106, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c93-106, Dacian Wars, 106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria),Parthia,

XV Apollinaris, Pia Fidelas

66-70 AD, Jewish War Judea, 70-71 AD, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 71-117 AD, AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 71-117 AD, AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 88, Dacian Wars, 71-117 AD, AD, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 101-106, Dacian Wars, 117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), 134, Alan War, 162-166, Parthian War Captured Artaxata (Yerevan, Armenia), 117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), 162-166, Parthian War Captured Artaxata (Yerevan, Armenia),

XV Primigenia

43-70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 69-70 AD, Batavian Revolt, March 70 AD, Destroyed, Surrendered & Disbanded by Vespasian.        

XVI Flavia Firma

70 AD, Raised by Vespasian from XVI Gallica after Batavian Revolt, 70-75 AD, Castra Satala, (Near Kemah, Turkey), 75 AD, Syria, 76-114, Castra Satala, (Near Kemah, Turkey), 76-114, Castra Satala, (Near Kemah, Turkey), 114-117, Parthian Campaigns, 117-c305, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 117-c305, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 117-c305, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), c165, Parthian War (Iraq),

XVI Gallica

69-70 AD, Novaesium (Neuss, Germany), 69 AD one cohort to Italy, 69-70 AD, Batavian Revolt, 70 AD, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 70 AD, Surrendered & Disbanded, 70 AD, Reconstituted as Flavia Firma by Vespasian.        

XX Valeria Victrix, Antoniniana

68-83 AD, Viroconium (Wroxeter, England), 78-83 AD, Garrison Northern Britain, 78-83 AD, Garrison Deva (Chester, England), 83-87, Built Inchtuthil (Scotland), 88-c300, Deva (Chester, England), 88-c300, Deva (Chester, England), 88-c300, Deva (Chester, England), 122-125, Built Hadrian's Wall, 88-c300, Deva (Chester, England), c140, Built Antonine Wall, 155-158, Revolt Northern Britain,

XXI Rapax

44-70 AD, Vindonissa (Windisch, Switzerland), 68 AD, Italy Battle of Cremona, 69 AD, Battle at Augusta Treverorum, (Trier, Germany), 70 AD, Batavian Battle at Xanten (Vetera, Germany), 70-82, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 82-89 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 89-92 AD, Sarmation Battles on Donau, 92 AD, Destroyed by Sarmatians.      

XXII Deiotariana

c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), 67-70 AD, Vexillatio of 1,000 Jewish War, 69-70, Siege of Jerusalem, c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), c25 BC-c122 AD, Alexandria (Egypt), c122, Destroyed in Jewish riots in Alexandria.  

XXII Primigenia, Pia Fidelas

39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 70 AD, Carnuntum (Near Vienna, Austria), 71, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), c80 AD Noviomagus (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 92-93, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 139-142, Built Antonine Wall, 194, Defended Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany),

XXX Ulpia Victrix, Pia Fidelas,

    105, Raised by Trajan, 105-122, Brigetio (Szony, Hungary), 105, Dacian War, 115-117, Parthian War, 118-120, Noviomagus (Nijmegan, The Netherlands), 120-c420, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 120-?, Cohort at Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 120-?, Cohort at Rigomagus (Remagen, Germany), 120-c420, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 138-c160, Algerian Maurian War, 162-166, Parthian War,

ENDNOTES

1               See: The Roman legions at, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/legions.htm; Imperium-Romanum.com, http://imperiumromanum.com/militaer/heer/legionen01_01.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DI%2Baugusta%2Bgermanica %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegionshttp://www.romancoins.info/VIC-Legions.html, List of Roman legions, at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_legions; UNRV History, http://www.unrv.com/military/legions2.php# iiiparthica, Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atla s of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Gwyn Morgan, 69 AD, The Year of Four Emperors, Theodor Mommsen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War. The Brainy Encyclopedia, www.brainyencyclopedia.com/ encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia, http://legio-iii-cyrenaica.wikiverse.org/, Roman Place Names, http:// translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcolonia%2Bacci%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D, Jona Lendering, http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html, Wikipedia, http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:http%3A//legio-xxii-deotariana.wikiverse.org/, Wikipedia, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest, The FreeDictionary.Com, http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Legio%20XX%20Valeria%20Victrix, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vii_gemina.html, TheFreeDictionary.com.http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/List%20of%20 Roman%20legions, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies Pécs Sopianae, 1-8 September 2003, http://limesxix.btk.pte.hu/program.html, De Imperatoribus Romanis, at http://www.roman-emperors.org/assobd.htm, Legio Octae Augusta at, http://www.roman-britain.org/military/leg8augusta.htm.

2           For individual histories of the emperors see De Imperatoribus Romanis at, http://www.roman-emperors.org/impindex.htm.

3           My sources for legion deployments, locations, and other details have been construed from the following sources: Imperium-Romanum.com, http://imperiumromanum.com/militaer/heer/legionen01_01.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DI%2Baugusta%2Bgermanica %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, The Roman legions at, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/legions.htm; Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegionshttp://www.romancoins.info/VIC-Legions.html, UNRV History, http://www.unrv.com/military/legions2.php# iiiparthica; List of Roman legions, at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_legions; Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atlas of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War; The Brainy Encyclopedia, www.brainyencyclopedia.com/ encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia, http://legio-iii-cyrenaica.wikiverse.org/, Roman Place Names, http:// translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcolonia%2Bacci%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D, Jona Lendering, http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html, Wikipedia, http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:http%3A//legio-xxii-deotariana.wikiverse.org/, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest, The FreeDictionary.Com, http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Legio%20XX%20Valeria%20Victrix, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vii_gemina.html, TheFreeDictionary.com.http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/List%20of%20 Roman%20legions, http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/content/view/152/113/Aemy.com at, http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/content/view/152/113/; 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, at http://limesxix.btk.pte.hu/program.html, Michael Simkins, The Roman Army, from Caesar to Trajan(Revised Edition), Ross Cowan, for both Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, and Imperial Roman Legionary, AD 161-284, Duncan B Campbell, Roman Legionary Fortesses, 27 BC-AD 378.

4          Ross Cowan, Roman Battle Tactics 109 BC-AD 313, p.3.

5           Theodor Mommesen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, p. 386. See the Notitia Dignitatum at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notitia_Dignitatum to detail fifth century Legion details.

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