ROMAN LEGIONS: 193-455

Data Organisation

The legions identified below are organised by their historically-assigned seniority number and title.[1] (The Romans used both IV and IIII and some legions are shown as either. I have used IV throughout.) Since several different units were assigned the same number over time, the duplicates by number are further organised alphabetically by title. Several earlier republican units were reconsituted by Octavian (Augustus) and I have shown some former honorifics awarded under earlier titles. I have portrayed the legions against the reigns of significant emperors to provide some chronology and context to legionary actions. I have selected the emperors arbitrarily by their historical significance.[2] I have been greatly constrained by data bulk and have not included most of the confusing internal civil war actions.[3] Legions were often awarded honorifics to commemorate some special campaign, or characteristic, however, not all of these 'nicknames' were used as some seemed more important than others: searches require some flexibility. Many units received 5-10 such titles and they are not usually all noted.

The legions shown below were the primary units in the Roman army order of battle for the early imperium, however Diocletian instituted major organisational changes in size and function and thereby created additional new, smaller 'legions'. As the empire became too large to control easily and leadership was split amongst different men there were major changes in the field army. Diocletian split the army into east and west to confront the Germans and Persians, the size of the legions was greatly reduced, the legions were generally assigned to permanent garrisons (Castra legionaria), and the number of legions was increased. By c320 the legion strength had been reduced to c500 men, or roughly cohort size.[4] Seventy legions formed the army of the East, and a further 61 legions formed the army of the West.[5] I have focused here on the pre-Diocletian heavy legions. Because the empire was then under attack from a variety of enemies (including several German and Persian tribes), late-empire, legionary information is sparse. The post-Diocletian, 1,000-man 'field army' legions are noted in italics.

The unit titles, or honorifics, awarded often note either: the country of original recruitment; or some significant national people defeated by the unit; or unique initial dedication or occurrence; or an imperially-assigned honour for battlefield performance. To recall the Empire's split and continuation as Byzantium, I have shown the Byzantine arms. The Byzantine arms are, however, premature as Constantine did not move from Rome until 330, and Constantinople as the new Rome perhaps dates from Justinian c555.

Legions: 193-455

Septimius Severus 193/211

Valerian I 253/260

Diocletian 284/305 & Maximian 286/305

Constantine 307-337

Valentinian III, 425-455

I (Classica), Adiutrix, Pia Fidelas, Bis Constans

118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 195, 197-198, 215-217, Parthian Wars, 236-237, Dacian War, 244, Persian War, 259, Defence against Alemanni, 118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 118-444, Brigetio (Szony Hungary), 444, Disbanded.

I Armeniaca

    c271, Raised in Armenia, c271-c363, Armenia, c271-c363, Armenia, c271-c363, Armenia, 363, Failed Persian Campaign Defeated at Ctesiphon,

I Flavia Constantia

        c340, Raised by Constantius II, c340-c420, Arabia,

I Flavia Gallicana Constantia

    c294, ?Raised by Constantius Chlorus, c300-c420, Armorican (French Atlantic) Coast, c294-c420, Armorican (French Atlantic) Coast, c294-c420, Gaul - Rhine/Atlantic Coast, c420, Disbanded.

I Flavia Martis

    c294, ?Raised by Constantius Chlorus, c294-c420, Armorican (French Atlantic) Coast, c294-c420, Gaul - Rhine/Atlantic Coast, c294-c420, Gaul - Rhine/Atlantic Coast, c420, Disbanded.

I Flavia Pacis

        c340, Raised by Constantius II, c340-360, Mesopotamia,
I Flavia Theodosiana     c294, ?Raised by Constantius Chlorus, c300-c420, Armorican (French Atlantic) Coast, c300-c420, Armorican (French Atlantic) Coast, c300-c420, Armorican (French Atlantic) Coast,

I Illyricorum

273-c420, Palmyra (Desert, Syria), 273-c420, Palmyra (Desert, Syria), 273-c420, Palmyra (Desert, Syria), 273-c420, Palmyra (Desert, Syria), 315-316, Cohort to Egypt, 273-c420, Palmyra (Desert, Syria),

I Iovia

    c284, Raised by Diocletian, 284-c420, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), 284-c420, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), 284-c420, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania),

I Isaura Sagittaria

    c278, Raised by Probus, c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c280-c282, Cilician War, c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c420, Disbanded.

I Italica Prima

70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 197-198, Parthian War & Capture of Ctesiphon, 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 70-c420, Garrison Novae (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 70-c420, Garrison split at Novae (near Svishtov, Bulgaria) and Sexagintaprista. c420, Disbanded. 70-c420, Garrison split at Novae (near Svishtov, Bulgaria) and Sexagintaprista. c420, Disbanded.

I Iulia Alpina

        c340, Raised by Julius Constans, c340-c420, Alpes Cottiae, (Northern Italy),
I Martia, Victrix?     c295, Raised by Diocletian, c296-c400, ?Sopianae (Pécs, Hungary), c296-c400, ?Sopianae (Pécs, Hungary), c296-c400, ?Sopianae (Pécs, Hungary),

I Maximiana Thaebanorum

    296, Raised by Diocletian, 297-c350, Cusas (Thebes, South Luxor, Egypt), 297-c350, Cusas (Thebes, South Luxor, Egypt), 297-c350, Cusas (Thebes, South Luxor, Egypt), c350-c420, Hadrianopel (Edirne, Greece), 378, Defeated by Visigoths at Battle of Adrianople, (Edirne, Turkey), c420, Disbanded.

I Minerva Pia Fidelas Severiana

83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 198-211, Cohort at Lugdunum (Lyon, France), 83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), 83-c410, Bonna (Bonn, Germany), c351-353, Defeated by the Franks & Bonn destroyed I Minerva later recreated until c410, c410, Disbanded.

I Noricum

    c292, Raised by Diocletian to guard Noricum Inn/Danube Rivers, c292-c420, Adiuvense (Ybbs, Austria), c292-c420, Adiuvense (Ybbs, Austria), c292-c420, Adiuvense (Ybbs, Austria), c420, Disbanded.

I Parthica

197, Raised by Septimus Severus, 197-360, Singara (Sinjar, Turkey), 197-198, Parthian War, Captured Parthian capital Ctesiphon, 197-360, Singara (Sinjar, Turkey), Parthian Campaigns, 217, Sassanid Persian Campaign, 197-360, Singara (Sinjar, Turkey), Parthian Campaigns, 197-360, Singara (Sinjar, Turkey), Parthian Campaigns, 360-c420: Nsibis, Mesopotamia (Antiochia Mygdonia, Syria), c420, Disbanded.

I Pontica

    c290, Raised by Diocletian, c300-c420, Trapezus (Trabzon, Turkey), c300-c420, Trapezus (Trabzon, Turkey), c300-c420, Trapezus (Trabzon, Turkey), c420, Disbanded.

II Adiutrix Pia Fidelas

106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 193, Rome, 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 213, Alemanni War, 214-217, Parthian War, 238, Sassanid War, 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 269, Gothic War, 293-306, Cohort at Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary), 106-c420, Aquincum, (Budapest, Hungary),

II Armeniaca

      c300, Built Castra Satala (Near Kemah, Turkey), c340-360, Bezabde (Cizre, Turkey), 360, Surrendered to Persians,

II Augusta (Sabina)

208, Invasion of Caledonia, 208-c211, Carpow (Scotland), c211-c275, Isca Silurum, (Caerleon, Wales), c275-407, Rutupiae (Richborough, England), (reduced to cohort) c275-407, Rutupiae (Richborough, England), (reduced to cohort) c275-407, Rutupiae (Richborough, England), (reduced to cohort) 407, Defence of Rutupiae (Richborough, England - cohort), c408, Withdrawal from Britain,

II Brittannica

    c290, in Britannia, c290-407?, Britannia coastal defence, c290-407?, Britannia coastal defence, Rutupiae (Richborough, England), 407, Withdrawal from Britain,
II Felix Valentis, Thebaeorum     c283, Raised by Dioceltian, 286, killed by Maximian for refusing to kill Christians![6]    
II Flavia Constantia     296, Raised by Diocletion,, 296-c350, Cusas, (South Luxor, Egypt), 296-c350, Cusas, (South Luxor, Egypt), 297-c350, Cusas (South Luxor, Egypt), c350-c420, Hadrianopel (Edirne, Greece), 378, Defeated by Visigoths at Battle of Adrianopel,

II Flavia Constantia, Thebesorum

        c386, Raised by Constantius II, c386-c400, Thessalonica (Thessalonica, Greece),

II Flavia Virtutis

        c340, Raised by Constantius II, c340-360, Bezabde (Cizre, Turkey), 360, Surrendered to Persians, 360, Disbanded.

II Herculia

    c284, Raised by Dioceltian, 284-c420, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), 284-c420, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania), c340, ?cohort at Sitifis (Setif, Algeria), 284-c420, Troesmis (Iglita, Romania),

II Isaura

    c278, Raised by Probus, c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c280-c282, Cilician War, c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey),

II Italica, Pia Fidelas

180-c420, Lauriacum (Lorch, Austria), 205, Lauriacum Rebuilt, 180-c420, Lauriacum (Lorch, Austria), 236-237, Dacian Wars 180-c420, Lauriacum (Lorch, Austria), 269, Gothic Battles, c302, Cohort to Divitia (Deutz, Germany), 180-c420, Lauriacum (Lorch, Austria), 180-c420, Lauriacum (Lorch, Austria),

II Italica, Divitensium

      312, Raised as an independent Legio by Constantine from a II Italica Cohort at Divitia (Deutz, Germany), 312, supported Constantine's Seizure of Rome, 312, Battle of Milvian Bridge, 338-? Mobile Reserve,

II Iulia Alpina

        c340, Raised by Julius Constans, c340-c420, Alpes Cottiae, (Northern Italy),

II Parthica, Pia Fidelas, Felix Aeterna

197, Raised by Septimus Severus, 197-198, Parthian War Captured Parthian capital Ctesiphon, 198, Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey), c201-202, (Alba Iulia, Romania), c203-c312, Albanum (Near Rome, Italy), 208-211, Caledonian Campaign, (Scotland), c203-c312, Albanum (Near Rome, Italy), 213, Alamanni War (Germany), 214-217, Parthian War, 217-218, Apamea, (Qalaat al-Mudiq, Syria), 218/219, Rome, 231, Sassanid Battles, 231/232, Apamea, (Qalaat al-Mudiq, Syria), 234-235, Moguntiacum, (Mainz, Germany), 234-235, Alemanni Campaign, 235-238, Sarmation War Hungary, 242-244, Persian War, 249, Italy, c203-c312, Albanum (Near Rome, Italy), c261-c300, Campaigns in Gaul, Pannonia, Thracia, Namibia, 276-282, Cilecia, c203-c312, Albanum (Near Rome, Italy), 312, Fought against Constantine, Disbanded. II Parthica must have been Recreated (perhaps by Diocletian) since it served c340-360, Bezabde (Cizre, Turkey), 360, Surrendered to Persians,

II Traiana, Secunda Fortis, Antoniniana

125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), 125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), 213, Alemanni Battles, 125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), 298, Moorish War in Mauretania 125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), Garrison in Thebes (Luxor, Egypt), Syene (Aswan, Egypt), and the Numidian Border, 125-c420, Garrison Alexandria, (Egypt), Garrison in Thebes (Luxor, Egypt), Syene (Aswan, Egypt), & Numidian Border, c420, Disbanded.

III Augusta, Liberatrix, Iterum Pia, Iterum Vindex

98-c361, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria),

98-c361, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria), 238-253 Legion Disbanded by Gordian III, 253, Reconstituted by Valerian, 253-260, Berber War,

98-c361, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria), 289-297, Berber War, 98-c361, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria), 98-c420, Lambaesis (Batna, Algeria),

III Cyrenaica

125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 197-198, Parthian Campaign, 125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 215-217, Parthian Campaign 125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 260-272, Invasion of Persia, 125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria), 125-c420, Bostra (Bosra, Syria),

III Diocletiana

    296, Raised by Diocletian, 296-c420, Alexandria (Egypt), 296-c420, Alexandria (Egypt), c380/390, Cohorts at Thebes, (Luxor, Egypt), & Kom Ombo (near Aswan, Egypt), 296-c420, Alexandria (Egypt),

III Flavia Salutis

        c340, Raised by Constantius II, c340-360, Mesopotamia & Africa

III Gallica Felix

70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), Syria / Phoenicia, 197-198, Parthian War Captured Babylon, Selucia, Ctesiphon Mesopotamia, 70-219, Raphanae (Abila, Jordan), 220-c420, Danaba (Near Damascus, Syria), 219-222, Disbanded by Heliogabalus. 222, Reconstituted by Severus Alexander, 222-c420, Danaba (Near Damascus, Syria), 220-c420, Danaba (Near Damascus, Syria), 315-316, Cohort to Egypt, 220-c420, Danaba (Near Damascus, Syria),

III Herculia

    c290, Raised by Diocletian, c300-c420, Illyricum (Dalmatia/ Croatia), c290, Raised by Diocletian, c300-c420, Illyricum (Dalmatia/ Croatia), c290, Raised by Diocletian, c300-c420, Illyricum (Dalmatia/ Croatia),

III Isaura

    c278, Raised by Probus, c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c280-c282, Cilician War, c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey), c278-c420, Isaura (Cilicia, Turkey),

III Italica, Pia Fidelas

171-c420, Regina Castra (Regensburg, Germany), (Detachment at Augusta Vindelicum (Augsburg, Germany), 179, Built Castle (Castra), 193, Rome, 197-198, Cohort to Parthian War, 171-c420, Regina Castra (Regensburg, Germany), 213, Alamanni Campaign, 243-244, Persian Campaign, 260 AD, Defeated by Germans, 171-c420, Regina Castra (Regensburg, Germany), 273, Palmyrian Campaign (Syria), c290, Guarded Dalmatian Border Passes, 171-c420, Regina Castra (Regensburg, Germany), c390-c465, Cohorts guard Danube & Rhine, 171-c420, Regina Castra (Regensburg, Germany), c390-c465, Cohorts guard Danube & Rhine,

III Iulia Alpina

        c340, Raised by Julius Constans, c340-c420, Alpes Cottiae, (Northern Italy),

III Parthica, Pia

197, Raised by Septimus Severus, 197-198, Parthian War, Captured Parthian capital Ctesiphon, 198-c395, Castra Rhesaena (Râs-el-'Ain, Turkey), 217 Parthian Campaign, 230-243, Defeated Persian army at Rhesaena, 198-c395, Castra Rhesaena (Râs-el-'Ain, Turkey), 256, 261-267, 284-305, Persian Campaigns, 198-c395, Castra Rhesaena (Râs-el-'Ain, Turkey), 198-c395, Castra Rhesaena (Râs-el-'Ain, Turkey), c395-c419, Carchemish (Apadna, Syria), c420, Disbanded at Sidon, Syria..

IV Flavia Felix, Firma

86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), 86-c337, Singidunum (Belgrade, Serbia), c337, Disbanded.  

IV Italica

  c240, Raised by Gordian III, c240-c420, Sasanian campaign in Persia, c240-c420, Sasanian campaign in Persia, c240-c420, Sasanian campaign in Persia, c240-c420, Sasanian campaign in Persia,

IV Martia

  c272, Raised by Aurelian, c272-c420, Arabia, c272-c420, Arabia, c272-c420, Arabia, c272-c420, Arabia,

IV Parthica

    c290, Raised by Diocletian, c290-?c420, Orrhenorum (Vodena, Turkey), ?c420-c600, Beroea (Aleppo, Syria), c290-?c420, Orrhenorum (Vodena, Turkey), ?c420-c600, Beroea (Aleppo, Syria), c290-c420, Orrhenorum (Vodena, Turkey), c420-c600, Beroea (Aleppo, Syria),

IV Scythica, Parthica

66-c300, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 194 & 197-198, Parthian Wars, 66-256, Zeugma (Belkis, Turkey), 230, Sassanid War, 256, Defeated in invasion by Sassanian Sapur I, 261-267, 284-305, Sassanid Wars, 300-c420, Sura, Mesopotamia (Syria), 300-c420, Sura, Mesopotamia (Syria), 300-c420, Sura, Mesopotamia (Syria),

V Iovia

    c285, Raised by Diocletian, c285-c420, Castellum Onagrinum (Begecs-Kilvavár, Croatia), c285-c420, Castellum Onagrinum (Begecs-Kilvavár, Croatia), c285-c420, Castellum Onagrinum (Begecs-Kilvavár, Croatia), c420, Disbanded.

V Macedonica, Pia Constans

167-274, Potaissa (Turda, Romania), c185, Defeated Sarmatians, 167-274, Potaissa (Turda, Romania), 167-274, Potaissa (Turda, Romania), 275-420 Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 244-245, Defeated Carpi, 275-420 Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 275-420 Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), 420, Disbanded.

V Parthica

    c290, Raised by Diocletian, c290-359, Amida (Diyarbakir, Turkey), 359, Defeated by Persians, c290-359, Amida (Diyarbakir, Turkey), 359, Defeated by Persians, c290-359, Amida (Diyarbakir, Turkey), 359, Defeated by Persians, 359, Disbanded.

VI Ferrata, Fidelas, Constans, Hispaniensis

136-c260, Caparcotna (Lejjun, Israel), 195, Jewish Civil War, 136-c260, Caparcotna (Lejjun, Israel), 260, Probably defeated by Sassanids.      

VI Gallicana

  c265-, Raised by Laelianus, c265-, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany),      

VI Gemella

    c395-?, Raised by Diocletian,    

VI Herculia

    c285, Raised by Diocletian, c285-c420, (Teutoburgium, Near Vukovar, Croatia), c285-c420, (Teutoburgium, Near Vukovar, Croatia), c285-c420, (Teutoburgium, Near Vukovar, Croatia),

VI Hispana

    c246, Raised by Philippus, c246-c251, probably Novae, (Svishtov, Bulgaria), 251, Destroyed at Battle of Abrittus.    

VI Parthica

    c285, Raised by Diocletian, c285-c420, Syria, c285-c420, Syria, c285-c420, Syria, 363, Defeated by Persians,

VI Victrix, Hispaniensis, Pia Fidelas, Fidelas, Constans, Britannica,

122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 196, France, 197, British Revolt, 208-215, Horrea Classis (Carpow, Scotland), 122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 306, Emperor Constantine Chlorus d York, 306 Proclaimed Constantine emperor, 122-c402, Eboracum (York, England), 402, Withdrawn Probably Stilicho, Gaul (France),

VII Claudia, Pia Fidelas, Constans, Paterna,

58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 193, Italy, 198, Parthian Campaign, 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 216-217, Parthian War, c233-? Sassanid Wars in Persia, 269, Defeated Goth Invasion Naissus (Nis, Serbia), 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), 58-c420, Garrison Danube at Viminiacum (Kostolac, Serbia), c420, Disbanded.

VII (Hispana, Galbiana), Gemina, Pia Felix

c181-409 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), c181-409 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 235, Cohort Germanic War, c181-409 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), c181-409 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), c181-409 AD, Castra Legio (Leon, Spain), 409, Probably defeated by Visigoths/ Vandals/ Suebians in Spain, 409, Disbanded.

VIII, Augusta, Gallica, Bis Augusta,

70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 185, Defeated local robbers, 194 & 197-198, Parthian Wars, 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 213, 235, Alamanni Wars (Germany), 250-260, Failed Alemanni War (Germany), 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), 70-c407, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), c407-c420, Defence of Italy against Visigoths,

IX (Triumphalis), Hispana, Macedonica.

         

X Fretensis, Pia Fidelas

70-c253, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, Israel), c250-c420 AD, Aela (Eilat, Israel), c250-c420 AD, Aela (Eilat, Israel), c250-c420 AD, Aela (Eilat, Israel), c250-c420 AD, Aela (Eilat, Israel), c420, Disbanded.

X (Equestris), Gemina, Pia Fidelas

118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 235-238, Dacian War, 118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), 118-c420, Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c420, Disbanded.

XI (Neptune), Claudia, Pia Fidelas

106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), 193, Byzantium Battle, 198, Parthian Campaign, 106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), 106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), 295, Cohort Egypt, 298, Cohort Algeria, 106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), 106-c420, Durosturum (Silestra, Bulgaria), c420, Disbanded.

XII (Victrix), Fulminata, Certa Constans,

82 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 82 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 217, 230, Sassanid Wars, 244, Invaded Iraq,

82 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 274, 298, Sassanid Wars,

82 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), 82 AD-c420, Melitene (Malatya, Turkey), c420, Disbanded.

XII Victrix,

    c294-306, Raised by Constantius Chlorus possibly at Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), c306-c320, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), ?c28/-306, ?Raised at Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France), ?c28/-306-?320, Argentoratum (Strasbourg, France),  

XIII Gemina, Martia Victrix,

106-c230, Apulum (Alba Julia, Romania), 106-c230, Apulum (Alba Julia, Romania), c230-c420, Ratiaria (Arcar, Bulgaria), c230-c420, Possible Cohort in Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c230-c420, Ratiaria (Arcar, Bulgaria), c230-c420, Possible Cohort in Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c268-270, Alamanni War (Germany), 271, Dacia Aureliana, 295-296, Cohort Egypt, c230-c420, Ratiaria (Arcar, Bulgaria), c230-c420, Possible Cohort in Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c230-c420, Ratiaria (Arcar, Bulgaria), c230-c420, Possible Cohort in Vindobona (Vienna, Austria), c420, Babylon, (Cairo, Egypt),

XIV Germina, Pia Fidelas

106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 193, Rome, 198, Parthia, 106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), 106-c430, Carnuntum (Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria, Austria), c430, Disbanded.?

XV Apollinaris, Pia Fidelas

117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), 194, 197-198, Parthian Campaigns & Capture of capital Ctesiphon, 117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), 230-c235, Sassanid War, 256-260, Persian War, 256, Defeated at Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey), 117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), 117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), 117-c405, Castra Satala (Kelkit, Turkey) Cohorts at Ancyra (Ankara) & Trapezus (Trabzon), c405,

XVI Flavia Firma

117-c305, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), c198, Souriya, Syria 117-c305, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), 244, Failed Sassanid War, 256, Defeated by Sassanids), 117-c305, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey), c262-267, Sassanid War, 285-298, Successful Sassanid War, c305-c350?, Sura (Southern Iraq), c305-c350?, Sura (Southern Iraq),

XX Valeria Victrix, Antoniniana

88-c300, Deva (Chester, England), 88-c300, Deva (Chester, England), 88-c296, Deva (Chester, England), 296, Possibly Destroyed in coup by Allectus at Londinium (London, England),    

XXII Primigenia, Pia Fidelas

39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), 213, (Germannic), 233, Cohort in Sassanid War, c235, Alemanni Battles (Germany), 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) 39-c337 AD, Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany), c337, Disbanded?  

XXX Ulpia Victrix, Pia Fidelas,

120-c420, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), c199-c235, Cohorts at Lugdunum (Lyons, France), c209, Scotland Picti War, 120-c420, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), c199-c235, Cohorts at Lugdunum (Lyons, France), 235, Parthian Campaign, c240, Defeated in Rhine area, 256-258, Defeated by Franks, 260, Successful Frank campaign, 120-c420, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), c275, Frank Invasion of Gaul - resisted, 120-c420, Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 120-c420, Castra Vetera (Xanten, Germany), 407 Rhine Frontier Collapsed, c420, Disbanded?

ENDNOTES

1               See: The Roman legions at, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/legions.htm; Imperium-Romanum.com, http://imperiumromanum.com/militaer/heer/legionen01_01.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DI%2Baugusta%2Bgermanica %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegionshttp://www.romancoins.info/VIC-Legions.html, List of Roman legions, at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_legions; UNRV History, http://www.unrv.com/military/legions2.php# iiiparthica, Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atla s of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Gwyn Morgan, 69 AD, The Year of Four Emperors, Theodor Mommsen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War. The Brainy Encyclopedia, www.brainyencyclopedia.com/ encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia, http://legio-iii-cyrenaica.wikiverse.org/, Roman Place Names, http:// translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcolonia%2Bacci%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D, Jona Lendering, http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html, Wikipedia, http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:http%3A//legio-xxii-deotariana.wikiverse.org/, Wikipedia, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest, The FreeDictionary.Com, http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Legio%20XX%20Valeria%20Victrix, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vii_gemina.html, TheFreeDictionary.com.http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/List%20of%20 Roman%20legions, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies Pécs Sopianae, 1-8 September 2003, http://limesxix.btk.pte.hu/program.html, De Imperatoribus Romanis, at http://www.roman-emperors.org/assobd.htm, Legio Octae Augusta at, http://www.roman-britain.org/military/leg8augusta.htm.

2           For individual histories of the emperors see De Imperatoribus Romanis at, http://www.roman-emperors.org/impindex.htm.

3           My sources for legion deployments, locations, and other details have been construed from the following sources: Imperium-Romanum.com, http://imperiumromanum.com/militaer/heer/legionen01_01.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DI%2Baugusta%2Bgermanica %26hl%3Den %26lr%3D, The Roman legions at, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/legions.htm; Roman Numismatic Gallery :RomanLegionshttp://www.romancoins.info/VIC-Legions.html, UNRV History, http://www.unrv.com/military/legions2.php# iiiparthica; List of Roman legions, at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_legions; Tim Cornell & John Matthews, Atlas of the Roman World, pp. 79, 113-166, Derek Williams, The Reach of Rome, AJ Langguth, A Noise of War; The Brainy Encyclopedia, www.brainyencyclopedia.com/ encyclopedia/l/le/legio_iii_gallica.html, Wikipedia, http://legio-iii-cyrenaica.wikiverse.org/, Roman Place Names, http:// translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dcolonia%2Bacci%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D, Jona Lendering, http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html, Wikipedia, http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:http%3A//legio-xxii-deotariana.wikiverse.org/, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Teutoburg_Forest, The FreeDictionary.Com, http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Legio%20XX%20Valeria%20Victrix, Jona Lendering, The Roman Legions, http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/vii_gemina.html, TheFreeDictionary.com.http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/List%20of%20 Roman%20legions, http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/content/view/152/113/Aemy.com at, http://www.romanarmy.com/cms/content/view/152/113/; 19th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Pecs Sopianae, 1-8 September, 2003, at http://limesxix.btk.pte.hu/program.html, Michael Simkins, The Roman Army, from Caesar to Trajan(Revised Edition), Ross Cowan, for both Roman Legionary, 58 BC-AD 69, and Imperial Roman Legionary, AD 161-284, Duncan B Campbell, Roman Legionary Fortesses, 27 BC-AD 378.

4          Ross Cowan, Roman Battle Tactics 109 BC-AD 313, p.3.

5           Theodor Mommesen, A History of Rome under the Emperors, p. 386. See the Notitia Dignitatum at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notitia_Dignitatum to detail fifth century Legion details.

5           The Roman Theban Legion at, http://bibleprobe.com/theban.html.

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