Modern English/Roman Latin Gazetteer

Introduction

This is intended to provide a basic reference for European and Mediterranean place-names, since many historical references are based on the Roman place-names.[1] These places are organised alphabetically by English names.

The names are organised alphabetically by English name.

Roman Fortresses

I have also deliberately indicated Legionary fortresses and castras by the † in the Latin column.[2] (I have not shown Auxilliary forts - there were at least 12 in Noricum alone - nor all Legionary forts.) Please note that the forts indicated were not all occupied concurrently.

I have shown below plans for the wooden Inchtuthil the legionary fort in Scotland; and stone Valkenburg the cohortal fort in the Netherlands. The campaign daily forts were built on the same general plan but with dirt and wood.

Inchtuthil, Scotland: c87 AD

Legend

Founded by Domitian, built in wood, abandoned 87 AD
* Outer defences of ditches & ramparts
** Outer wall = c430m
A Legion headquarters
B Legate's house
C Barracks
D Tribune's houses
E Hospital

 

Praetorium Agrippinae, Netherlands: c40 AD

Legend

Founded by Caligula, re-built in stone c175, abandoned c271
* Outer defences of ditches & ramparts
** Outer stable wall = 50m
A Cohort headquarters
B Prefect / tribune's house
C Stables
D Hospital

Roman Place Names

Modern English/Roman Latin

Modern English

Roman Latin

 

Modern English

Roman Latin

Abila (Quailibah), Jordan Raphana, Syria †   Köln, Germany Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, (Oppidum Ubiorum) Germania Inferior † †
Akko/Acre, Israel Ptolemais, Judea   Konstanz, Germany Constantia, Raetia
Al Mafraq, Jordan Bostra, Arabia Petraea †   Konya, Turkey Iconium, Galatia
Alba Iulia, Romania Apulum, Dacia †   Kostolac, Serbia Viminacium, Moesia, Superior †
Aldborough, England Isurium, Britannia   Kuros, Turkey Cyrrhus, Syria †
Aleppo, Syria Beroea, Syria   Larnaca, Cyprus Citium, Cyprus
Alexandria, Egypt Alexandria, (Nicopolis) Aegyptus † †   Latakia, Syria Laodicea, Syria †
Algiers, Algeria Icosium, Mauretania Caesariensis   Leicester, England Ratae, Britannia
Almalar, Syria Caesarea Germanicia, Syria   Lejjun, Israel Caparcotna, Judea †
Amman, Jordan Philadelphia, Arabia Petraea   León, Spain Legio, Hispania Terraconensis †
Anakara, Turkey Ancyra, Galatia   Lincoln, England Lindum Colonia, Britannia †
Antakya, Turkey Antioch, Syria   Linz, Austria Lentia, Noricum
Aquileia, Italy Aquileia, Italia   Lisbon, Portugal Olisipo, Lusitanea
Archar, Bulgaria Ratiara, Moesia Superior †   Ljubljana, Slovenia Emona/Aemona/Labacum, Pannonia
Ardoch, Scotland Alauna Venicanum, Caledonia †   London, England Londinium, Britannia
Arles, France Arelate, Narbonensis   Lorch, Austria Lauriacum, Noricum †
Aswan, Egypt Syene, Aegyptus   Luxor, Egypt Thebae, Aegyptus
Augsburg, Germany Augusta Vindelicorum, Raetia †   Luxor, Egypt Thebae, Aegyptus
Augst, Germany Augusta Rauricorum, Germania Superior   Lyon, France Lugdunum, Gaullia Lugdunensis
Baalbek, Lebanon Heliopolis, Syria   Maastricht, The Netherlands Traiectum ad Mosam, Germania Inferior
Baden-Baden, Germany Aquae, Germania Superior   Mainz, Germany Moguntiacum, Germania Superior † †
Barcelona, Spain Barcino, Hispania Citerior   Malaga, Spain Malaca, Hispania Bætica
Bath, England Aquae Sulis, Britannia   Malatya, Turkey Melitene, Cappadocia †
Batna, Algeria Lambaesis, Numidia †   Mancetter, England Manduessedum, Britannia
Beersheba, Israel Berosaba, Arabia Petraea   Marktbreit am Main, Germany Unknown, Germania Superior † †
Beirut, Lebanon Berytus, Syria   Marseille, France Massilia, Narbonensis
Belgrade, Serbia Singidunum, (Viminacium) Moesia Superior †   Meggido, Israel Caparcotna, Judea
Belkis, Turkey Zeguma, Mesopotamia †   Mérida, Spain Emerita Augusta, Hispania Ulterior
Benghazi, Libya Berenice, Cyrenaica   Milan, Italy Mediolanum, Alpes Poeninae
Bizerte, Tunesia Hippo Diarrhytus, Africa Proconsularis   Nantes, France Portus Namnetum, Gallia Lugdunensis
Blat Sinjar, Iraq Singara, Mesopotamia †   Naples, Italy Neapolis, Italia
Bologna, Italy Bononia, Italia   Narbonne, France Narbo, Narbonensis
Bonn, Germany Bonna, Germania Inferior †   Neuss, Germany Novaesium, Germania Inferior †
Bordeaux, France Burdigala, Gaullia Aquitania   Newcastle, England Pons Aelius, Britannia
Bosra, Syria Bostra, Syria †   Newstead, Scotland Trimontium, Caledonia †
Boulogne, France Bononia, Gallia Lugdunensis   Nijmegan, The Netherlands Noviomagus Batavodurum, Germania Inferior †
Bourges, France Avaricum, Gaullia Aquitania   Nîmes, France Colonia Augusta Nemausus, Gallia Narbonensis
Braga, Portugal Bracara Augusta, Hispania Tarraconensis   Nis, Serbia Naissus, Moesia
Brasov, Romania Poiana, Sarmatia   Nusaybin, Turkey Nisibis, Mesopotamia
Brindisi, Italy Brundisium, Italia   Oporto, Portugal Portus Cale, Hispania Lusitania
Brogh, England Petuaria, Britannia   Orasje, Serbia Margum, Moesia Superior †
Budapest, Hungary Aquincum, Pannonia Inferior †   Orléans, France Cenabum Aureliani, Gallia Lugdunensis
Bursa, Turkey Prusa, Bithynia & Pontus   Osijek, Croatia Mursa, Pannonia Inferior †
Cadiz, Spain Gades, Hispania Bætica   Pamplona, Spain Pompaelo, Hispania
Caerleon, Wales Isca Silurum, Britannia †   Paris, France Lutetia Parisiorum,, Lugdunensis, Gaul
Caerwent, Wales Venta, Britannia   Passau, Germany Castra Batava, Raetia
Cairo, Egypt Babylon, Aegyptus †   Petra, Jordan Petra, Arabia Petraea
Caister St Edmunds, England Venta Icenorum, Britannia   Petrijevci, Croatia Mursella, Pannonia Inferior †
Canterbury, England Durovernum Cantiacorum, Britannia   Poitiers, France Limonum, Aqitania
Caernarfon, Wales Segontium, Britannia   Pamplona, Spain Pompaelo, Hispania Tarraconensis
Carpow, Scotland Horrea Classis, Britannia †   Pselchis, Egypt Pselchitanus, Aegyptus/Nubia
Cartagena, Spain Carthago Nova, Hispania Tarraconensis   Ptuj, Slovenia Poetovio, Pannonia Superior †
Castellum Onagrinum, Pannonia Secunda Begecs-Kilvavár, Croatia   Qalaat al-Mudiq, Syria Apamea, Syria
Cherbourg, France Coriallum, Lugdunensis, Gaul   Qift, Egypt Coptos/Justinianopolis, Aegyptus †
Chester, England Deva, Britannia †   Rafah, Palestine Raphia, Judea
Chichester, England Noviomagus, Britannia   Rafniye, Syria Raphanaea, Syria †
Cirencester, England Corinium Dobunnorum, Britannia   Râs-el-'Ain / Ceylanpinar Turkey Rhesaena, Mesopotamia †
Cizre, Turkey Bezabde, Cappadocia †   Regensburg, Germany Castra Regina, Raetia †
Colchester, England Camulodunum, Britannia †   Reims, France Durocortorum, Belgica
Cologne/Koln, Germany Colonia Agrippina, Germania Inferior †   Remagen, Germany Rigomagus, Germania Inferior
Copenhagen, Denmark Hafnia, Germania   Richborough, England Rutupiae, Britannia †
Córdoba, Spain Corduba, Patricia Colonia, Hispania Bætica   Rome, Italy Roma, Italia
Cremona, Italy Colonia Veneria †   Rouen, France Rotomagus, Gallia Lugdunensis
Cremona, Italy Bedriacum, Italia   Rousse, Bulgaria Sexaginta Prista, Moesia Inferior †
Dalj, Croatia Teutoburgium, Pannonia   Sadak, Turkey Satalia, Cappadocia

Dertosa, Spain

Tortosa, Hispania   Saida, Lebanon Sidon, Syria
Deutsch Atlenburg, Austria Carnuntum, Pannonia Superior †   Salamanca, Spain Salamantica, Hispania Lusitania
Dijon, France Dibio, Germania Superior   Salhiyé, Syria Dura, Mesopotamia †
Dijon, France Mirebeau, Germania Superior †   Salzburg, Austria Iuvavum, Noricum
Diyarbakir, Turkey Amida, Cappadocia   Samsat, Turkey Samosata, Mesopotamia †
Dorchester, England Durnovaria, Britannia   Saragossa, Spain Zaragoza, Hispania Tarraconensis
Dover, England Dubris, Britannia   Scopje, Macedonica Scupi, Moesia Superior
Durres, Albania Dyrrachium, Epidamnus   Sevilla, Spain Hispalis, Hispania Bætica
Edirne, Turkey Hadrianopel, Macedonica   Shahhat, Libya Cyrene, Cyrenaica
El Arish, Palestine Rhinocolura, Aegyptus   Silchester, England Calleva, Britannia
Elat, Israel Aila, Arabia Petraea   Silestra, Bulgaria Durostorum, Moesia Inferior †
El Lejjun, Jordan Betthorus, Arabia Petraea †   Sinjar, Turkey Singara, Mesopotamia
Esztergom, Hungary Salva, Pannonia   Sisak, Croatia Siscia, Pannonia, †
Exeter, England Isca Dumnoniorum, Britannia †   Soissons, France Noviodunum, Belgica
Faro, Portugal Ossonoba, Hispania Lusitania   Southampton, England Clausentum, Britannia
Florence, Italy Florentia, Italia   Split, Croatia Aspalathos, Dalmatia †
Gardun, Croatia Tilurium, Dalmatia, †   Sremska Mitrovica, Albania Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior †
Gebel Barkel, Sudan Napata, Nubia   St Albans, England Verulamium, Britannia
Geneva, Switzerland Genava, Raetia   Strasbourg, France Argentoratum, (Argentorate) Augusta Trebecorum, Germania Superior †
Geyre, Turkey Aphrodisias, Asia   Suplja Crkva, Croatia Burnum, Dalmatia †
Gigen, Bulgaria Oescus, Moesia Inferior †   Svishtov, Bulgaria Novae, Moesia Inferior †
Gloucester, England Glevum Colphia, Britannia †   Szeged, Hungary Partiscum, Pannonia Inferior
Guadix, Spain Colonia Iulia Gemella Acci, Hispania Bætica †   Szony, Hungary Brigetio, Pannonia Inferior †
the Hague, The Netherlands Haga-Comitis. Gallia Belgica   Tangiers, Morocco Tingi, Mauretania Tingitana
Haidra, Tunesia Ammaedara, Numidia   Tébessa, Algeria Theveste, Numidia †
Halifax, England Halifacium, Britannia   Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel Joppa, Judea
Hamburg, Germany Hamburgum, Germania Ulterior   Toledo, Spain Toletum, Hispania Bætica
Heerlen, The Netherlands Coriovallum. Gallia Belgica   Tomislavgrad, Bosnia Delminium, Dalmatia †
Heliopolis/Cairo, Egypt Heliopolis, Aegptus   Tongeren, Belgium Atuatuca, Gallia Belgica
Hisyah, Syria Danaba, Syria †   Trier, Germany Augusta Treverorum, Gallia Belgica
Homs, Syria Emesa, Syria   Turda, Romania Potaissa, Tres Daciae †
Iglita, Romania Troesmis, Moesia Inferior †   Tyre, Lebanon Tyrus, Judea
Inchtuthil, Scotland Pinnata Castra, Caledonia †   Yerevan, Armenia Artaxata, Armenia Superior
Istanbul, Turkey Byzantium/Constantinopolis, Thracia   York, England Eburacum, Britannia †
Jerusalem, Israel Hierosolyma, (Aelia Capitolina) Judea †   Valencia, Spain Valentia, Hispania Citerior
Karak, Jordan Characmoba, Arabia Petraea   Valkenburg, The Netherlands Praetorium Agrippinae, Germania Inferior †
Karima, Sudan Napata, Nubia   Vienna, Austria Vindobona, , Pannonia †
Kasserine, Tunesia Cillium, Africa Proconsularis   Windisch, Switzerland Vindonissa, Gallia Narbonensis †
Kayseri, Turkey Mazaca, Cappadocia   Wroxeter, England Viroconium Cornoviorum, Britannia †
Kenchester, England Magna, Britannia   Xanten, Germany Castra Vetera, Germania Inferior † †
Koblenz, Germany Confluentes, Germania Superior   Zaragoza, Spain Caesaraugusta, Hispania Citerior

Legend:

† - Legion fort (maximum 6,000-man) fortress often stone, not all occupied by all emperors. See also the Roman Legions list at this site.

† † - Double-legion fort until the civil war of 89 AD forced Domitian to ban double-garrisoning legions outside remote Egypt.

ENDNOTES

1               See Roman place names at, http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/places.html. Note Bill Thayer, A Gazetteer of the Roman World at, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/home.html.

2               See List of castra at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_castra, and also Duncan B Campbell, Roman Legionary Fortresses 27 BC-AD 378; Nic Fields, Rome's Northern Frontier AD 70-235; and Nic Fields, Rome's Saxon Shore. The Valkenburg plan is from Praetorium Agrippinae (Valkenburg) at, http://www.livius.org/ga-gh/germania/praetorium_agripinnae.html.

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