SCOTLAND

Caledonia

Celtic Cross

 

Known Scottish history was written by the Romans and they began with the Celts, who had migrated from Europe c650 BC, however, the Picts were there before them. The first Roman records followed the IX Legion invasion of southern Scotland in 81 AD. The Romans labelled the inhabitants Caledonians and the country Caledonia. After fifty years of fighting, the Roman Emperor Hadrian and his governors built stone walls across Britain to keep the fierce barbarian Caledonians away from the civilised Romans. Pictish raids in the north, Saxon attacks in the south, and trouble at home forced the legions out of Britain and prevented Scotland from gaining civilising Roman benefits. That was probably Scotland's loss. The tribal Scots called Scotland Alba and the early kings were styled king of Alba, but they did not gain a sense of nation and fought amongst themselves for the next 1,500 years. Later kings were titled king of the Scots, not 'of Scotland', since the Scots had not identified with the country and felt that they owed their loyalty to their clan and chiefs. By the end of the fifth century, Scotland was divided amongst four races: the powerful blue-painted Picts were in the east, south to about Edinburgh; the Celtic Britons had moved into the southwest; the German Anglo-Saxons had pushed into the southeast; and finally there was the invading Irish kingdom of Dalriada in the west. Dalriada was home to the Scots, a tribe from what is now County Antrim.[1] The Scots were a warlike tribe of Celts, who consolidated their control by the fifth century.[2] By 700 the peoples of Scotland were nominally Christian. St. Ninian was the first native missionary, although St. Columba had more success in the sixth century, perhaps because he was Irish. The western island of Iona was established as a religious centre, and Dunadd as a political power base paying tribute to Ireland.[3] Mackenzies descend from a thirteenth century migrating Norman-Irish FitzGerald who brought key military skills to Scotland.

The Vikings

A complex Viking society dominated large parts of Europe from the eighth to the eleventh centuries.[4] Scandinavian longships took them to conquer England, pillage France and Germany, establish Normandy, trade with Russia and discover Greenland, Iceland and America. They probably reached Scotland via the Shetland and Orkney Islands, from the west coast of Norway in about 24 hours.[5] They would have from May to September to raid - or trade - and would have had to balance farming responsibilities with more profitable raiding. The Orkneys became the Viking 'jumping off' point and having settled the Orkneys for hundreds of years the local Viking chief was recognised by the Norwegian King Harald Finehair as the Earl (jarl) of Orkney, in c 870.[6] About 800, Viking raids forced the Iona monastery to move to Kells in Ireland. No Scottish towns were established until after this Viking period, and the nearest towns for the future Scottish people were either York or Dublin. (Scone and Inverness were small villages at the time.) Some local Picts or Scots would have been killed, but many would have fled and others survived as Viking slaves.

Viking Longboat

 

The first recognised King of the Scots, in 843, was Kenneth MacAlpin. He moved his capital to Scone, changed the country's name to Scotland and sealed the Picts' fate.[7] Scotland had been constantly invaded by the Norse Vikings and two hundred years after MacAlpin, the moody Dane Macbeth was king. Scotland was not immune to the 1066 Norman invasion and gained a refugee English Princess Margaret as queen for Malcolm III. He had been brought up in England and he accepted Margaret's civilising English customs and fashions. While he introduced feudalism into Scotland, the Normans colonised the Scottish lowlands. This Norman influence subsequently led to profound differences between Highlanders and Lowlanders. Malcolm made a grave mistake by supporting claims to the English throne and provoked a serious clash with William the Conqueror who invaded Scotland in 1071 and forced Malcolm's homage. Malcolm's sons succeeded him and the most successful was David I.

David concentrated Scottish power, adapted feudalism and established Anglo-Norman allies in powerful positions. These included a de Brus and the High Steward, which led to the foundation of the Stuart family.[8] David inherited a primitive country but during his thirty-year reign he swept away many old Celtic traditions and left an improved kingdom. Feudalism built a hold over powerful clan chiefs, but there was no mitigating church influence and with no basic transportation network, little trade. The English Plantagenet King Henry II gained land from David's grandson, who died young and was succeeded by William. King William tried to recover Northumbria and made an Alliance with France, which led to a sorry invasion of Britain in 1174 and Scotland's subjection to English garrison troops. Later, King Richard I needed funds to go on crusade and sold back feudal rights, but Scotland remained in English plans. King Alexander III won the Battle of Largs with Gerald FitzGerald's help in October 1263 ending Viking influence.

Scottish life improved in trade and building, law and order, and education. But Alexander died leaving a power vacuum. The English Edward I exploited this vacuum and invaded: he seized much of Scotland and forced homage from many of the Scottish nobles including the father of the future king. Edward claimed feudal over-lordship of Scotland and a Council of Guardians supported John Balliol; but Robert Bruce seized control.[9] Edward did not accept Balliol and led a 30,000-man army into Scotland. But in 1297, Sir William Wallace annihilated the English at Stirling.

Wallace inspired a rebellion by Bruce, which led to Bruce being crowned king at Scone on 27 March 1306.[10] Edward and Bruce continued fighting Wallace's guerrilla war and Bruce's ghillies won fame as fighters. Had Edward I lived, Bruce would have been hard-pressed. Edward II was no match for Bruce, and England lost at Bannockburn in 1314.

Scotland Emerges

Scots' Lion

 

Robert the Bruce, or The Bruce, inspired his people and created a Scottish national identity. Edward II chased Bruce in Scotland and the Mackenzies sheltered him at Eilean Donan. In 1314, The Bruce badly defeated Edward in a pitched battle at Bannockburn, at which Ian Mackenzie led five hundred Kintail men. The Bruce then carried the battle to the English by ravaging northern England and having his brother crowned king of Ireland. King Robert the Bruce finally won Papal support and was released from his excommunication. The Bruce had promised to go on Crusade 'and thair bury my hart', but his heart got only as far as Spain.[11] Bruce's death led to a Stuart king, Robert II.

The Scottish heir and future King James I was kidnapped by the English and held captive for 18 years. In 1411, the MacDonalds, Lords of the Isles, exploited this void and sparked a vicious domestic battle at Harlaw. St Andrew University was founded in the same year and was soon followed by others at Glasgow and Aberdeen. Meanwhile, Henry V gained half of France for England. But in 1421 he found 12,000 Scots there, who later helped Jean d'Arc rescue France back from England. Having married an English woman, James was allowed to return to Scotland, where he re-established the crown's central power. He executed his former Regent and family, and followed that by summoning the Highland Chiefs to Parliament: he arrested 40, executed some, and thus ensured Highland unrest.

James I was determined and seized lands and titles shifting power to the king. After failure to find accommodation with England, James renewed Scottish ties with France and sent more troops to Jean d'Arc. James put the Scots Parliament actively to work and began to provide critically needed law and order, but he was murdered in 1437. James II, only six at this stage, was protected from the powerful Douglas family by the murder of their young Earl and his brother.

The Douglases seized Inverness, but an older King James II invited Douglas to dinner and stabbed him to death. More killing and the end of Douglas power resulted. James II died accidentally in 1460 and his son James III married the Danish princess, Margaret Oldenburg, whose dowry was the Orkney and Shetland Islands. That marriage was his major contribution to Scotland, as the murderous Douglas's struck back and another James succeeded to the crown.

James IV was both popular and the most able Stuart king. He was intelligent, brave, vigorous, just, devout, educated and a capable leader. He ushered in a time of peace, art and education, which coincided with improved Dutch trade and therefore increased wealth, revived public and private building, and refurbishing. In short, the social impact of civilisation and increased access to manufactured and luxury goods was felt in the cities and towns, but only in the Lowlands. In the Mackenzie Highlands life continued as usual, remote and dominated by the Chief and his feuds. What was important to the Highlander was the wild barren land, their black Angus cattle, and the number of warriors able to protect the clan and its rights. The Chief's authority pre-dated the feudal system, dating back to their tribal Celtic heritage.

Since kinship was the basic bond, the Chief commanded loyalty by custom and the clan was united in its collective glorious pride in their ancient ancestors, and thus to Irish and Norse kings. 'Almost everyone', the English Lieutenant Edward Burr was to write in amazement some centuries later, 'is a genealogist.'[12] Being isolated, well-armed and with such fanatical loyalties, Highland Chiefs were really semi-independent princes or kings. Their loyalties shifted with their interests and the MacDonalds were to feud for generations with the Mackenzies and their Macleod allies. King James, to his credit, visited the Highlands as a Gaelic-speaking friend to win the Highlanders over to the social times of the day. He failed and in 1503, the MacDonalds again burned down Inverness. James IV then established armed strong points and sheriffs throughout the Highlands.

Historical Symbols of Union

Tudor rose

 

Fleur de lis

 

Unicorn

 

Union Jack

James then turned to foreign affairs and cut the forests to build ships to fight the Turks, who were then at the walls of Vienna. He signed a perpetual peace treaty with Henry VII and married Princess Margaret Tudor. But war drew Scotland into Alliance with France against the new English King Henry VIII and in 1513 James invaded England. That moment of Scottish glory was followed by a massacre at the Battle of Flodden. King James was killed and nine Scottish earls, 14 lords, many Highland Chiefs and the best young Scots.

Henry consolidated his gains by reinforcing Scottish dissension and with their best dead the Scots resorted to internal fighting. Martin Luther, who espoused a break from Papal omnipotence, created a new European division and began the Protestant church. James V made some headway against the rebellious Highland Chiefs and married Princess Marie de Guise-Lorraine of France. With a French Catholic wife and Henry VIII's well-known religious troubles, a battle was at hand and the English won. In 1542, James V died broken and disconsolate: his two sons dead, his army lost, Scotland was left to a week-old Mary. Queen of Scots, she also claimed both the French and English thrones.

Independent Scotland held a central role in European politics and with Mary's powerful French relatives and Henry VIII causing religious upset with the Pope, Scotland could balance the shifting European powers. Mary was the centre of intrigue and much high drama. While major changes occurred in the outrageously corrupt Scottish clergy, John Knox gained influence in a new Protestant Kirk. The Kirk was brought into being by a First Covenant among the nobility, while persecutions and witch burning became local excitements. Protestant English won a battle over Catholic Scots at Pinkie near Edinburgh in 1547. (Mackenzies were skilled at fighting lost causes). Mary married the French Dauphin, who claimed both Scotland and England through her, with reciprocal citizenship status.{13} In 1560, Marie de Guise died, the Treaty of Edinburgh recognised Elizabeth as Queen of England, Protestantism was established in Scotland, and the first English step taken toward Union with Scotland.[14]

It was the end of the Auld Alliance with France. King Francois was not to live long and in 1561, Mary at eighteen claimed her position as Queen of Scotland. She was a good-looking, intelligent, young woman and a highly attractive potential French bride. To secure her succession she married her cousin Lord Darnley, who was four years her junior. Not very intelligent, he murdered her secretary from jealousy; in Mary's presence! Darnley himself was strangled the following year.

Mary next married the Earl of Bothwell, suspected of being involved in Darnley's death. This was too much for the Scots who raised an army, captured Mary and held her prisoner until she escaped to her cousin Elizabeth I. But in 1568, Elizabeth locked Mary a reigning monarch in the Tower of London. Elizabeth held Mary there for nineteen years before cutting off her head. Even in Europe, despite plots against Elizabeth, it was considered somewhat unusual. Mary. Queen of Scots is documented as the spectacularly ill-advised, and thus unstable young woman who allowed herself to become involved with the murder of her husband, Lord Darnley. That she should then marry the murderer led directly to her downfall. Elizabeth is shown to be a much more thoughtful ruler and aware of her cousin's cupidity and her own responsibility to protect Mary.[15] After Mary there was a period of turbulent times as James VI grew up amidst murders, sieges, impeachment and executions, which made the business of being Regent a dangerous job!

It was not until 1583, when James was seventeen, that he escaped imprisonment and proclaimed himself king. Intelligent, he accepted a troublesome nobility and religious strife, because he realised that he could inherit the English crown if he placated Elizabeth I about Protestantism. James married the Protestant Anne, of Denmark, to mollify the English Queen. He also made only a token protest at his mother's execution in the Tower and he fully maintained his contacts with the English. His reward was to succeed childless Elizabeth when she died in 1603.

Confusingly, James became both James VI of Scotland and separately James I of England and the Scots insisted on their separate distinctions for the Stewart line. James left for London and returned to Scotland only once more. He did however, make a permanent mark on heraldry by introducing the Scottish unicorn into British Royal arms. Quite religious and in tune with his times, James also created the first wide-spread English translation of the Bible and had it printed with a prayer book. James' children included, Henry, who died young, Charles I, who married to Henrietta Princess of France, and Elizabeth, who married Frederick V, Elector Palatine. With Elizabeth I's defeat of the Spanish Armada, Europe looked to a new English power.

A Merger

James I & VI liked the English Court and their Church and encouraged a union of the two states, as well as of their crowns.[16] He first used the term Great Britain to cover both states (England and Scotland: and in 1606 authorised a new union flag which combines the crosses of St George, St Andrew, and in 1801 the Irish St Patrick), called the Union Jack.[17] There was a brief discussion of a Union, approved in Edinburgh and then rejected outright in London. Scottish barbarism would not be encouraged in England - until 1707. James was anxious to pacify the Celtic Highlands, where feuds and old traditions continued, in defiance of Parliamentary orders. James fought fire with fire and used the Celtic tradition by issuing letters of fire and sword. This was an authority for hereditary enemies to deal 'appropriately' with named offenders; and it was by this act that the MacGregor Clan was nearly exterminated. James played one clan off against another and it worked as the Highlands fell quiet with the end of the 'Lords of the Isles'. Campbell power rose as the protectors of the Lowlands in a period of great religious change. James interfered in the kirk by imprisoning church ministers, he imported English customs, and he attempted to impose major procedural changes, but died in 1625.

Succeeding James VI was Charles I of both Scotland and England. Regrettably, Charles was no statesman and had little grasp of Scottish affairs. He believed strongly in the divine right of kings and tried to impose English Anglicanism on the Scottish Kirk, with disastrous results. Scots took religion seriously and this alienation resulted in the National Covenant document. That was seen as a defiant religious rebuttal in defence of 'Popery', and a resistance to Scotland becoming 'an English province'. Charles suffered from his absentee landlord status and power began to shift in Edinburgh, as the kirk's General Assembly met in Glasgow and deposed all bishops and condemned King James' Prayer Book. The rebellious 'Covenanters' began to organise for war, appointed a Leslie as General, called back overseas soldiers and bought arms.[18] Charles backed down at Berwick in 1639 and agreed to Assembly decisions, the Scottish Parliament.

Civil War

Harp

 

Events began to move quickly, with another successful armed Scottish confrontation and capture of Newcastle and Durham. Charles now needed money and had to convene the English Parliament. While Charles bribed key Scottish nobles in an unsuccessful effort to win support, civil war threatened and then actually broke out in England in 1642. The King and his Royalist forces were initially victorious and this forced the English Parliament to ask the Scots for help. The Covenanters were the only Scots to respond and they agreed to provide help in exchange for another reformation in England and Ireland, plus money. During the English Civil War a Covenanting army was sent to Ireland, but it achieved little due to the nature of Irish politics.[19] Charles had real trouble, with a Scottish army in England led by Leslie and an English army under Oliver Cromwell. Parliamentary forces defeated the Royalists at Marston Moor.

The Mackenzies entered the fray when the Royalist Earl of Montrose decided that the Campbell Chief, the Marquess of Argyll and the Covenanters had gone too far. In 1644, Montrose raised a Highland force to take back Scotland for Charles. He won a series of victories including Perth, Aberdeen, Inverary, Glencoe Lochaber, Dundee and Glasgow. Montrose was determined to beat Argyll before the Catholic Earl of Seaforth could join the Covenanters.[20] The Royalists were heavily defeated at Naseby, freeing the Covenanters to defeat Montrose at Philipaugh. This was the end for King Charles, who in 1646 surrendered to the Scottish army, who sold him to the English. Dreams of a Presbyterian England evaporated and Cromwell later defeated the angry Scots, the Edinburgh Government was then overthrown, and Argyll and Cromwell were supreme. Shortly afterwards, Charles was beheaded and Argyll declared Charles II the King. This last act was a farce and Montrose was arrested leading another army in Rosshire and executed. Charles II arrived to claim his kingdom, but Cromwell out-generalled the Scots at every move and Scotland was defeated and occupied by the English General Monck. Charles II went into exile, as a 'pretender', while Cromwell forced the 1707 Act of Union between England and Scotland.

The result was marvellous efficiency and security throughout Scotland: it was also most unpopular. Cromwell died in 1660 and General Monck invited Charles II to return, resulting in Argyll's execution. Charles ruled for the next twenty-five years, governing Scotland by messengers. Charles II created Mackenzie of Coul a baronet in 1673. Charles (after he was crowned) emasculated the great Protestant Covenant, which had moved the Scots and motivated them to help both Charles and Cromwell; and all Covenanted ministers resigned. The Covenanters fought back. They continued their ministries and armed clashes and mass reciprocal killings began. Charles died, succeeded by his unpopular brother James VII/II, the first Roman Catholic in over 100 years. Widespread opposition was based on religious fears, and interference by James' Dutch son-in-law William of Orange. This led to James' exile to France and the Dutch William of Orange and Mary being proclaimed as King and Queen (in both England and Scotland) in 1689.

Principle Scottish Clan Areas

Highland isolation led to a wide preference for James Stuart. Such supporters were known as Jacobites and Viscount (Bonnie) Dundee raised the Highland Clans for James then in Ireland.[21] At Killiecrankie, the Highlanders almost annihilated the Government troops, but Dundee was killed and despite formation of a Cameronian Regiment, the Highlanders lost to the Government. Jacobite hopes were ended in Ireland at the 1690 Battle of the Boyne and James returned to France. William decided to get tough with Highlanders and later built Fort William, but he did not understand Scots and the Lowland Campbells were allowed an historic revenge. The Jacobite victim of a January bloodbath was MacDonald of Glencoe who was visited by a Campbell company. MacDonalds hosted their killers before everyone under seventy was put to the sword. 'A Campbell soldier gnawed the rings from Lady Glencoe's fingers.'[22] The chief culprit was made an Earl.

King William was not popular in Scotland and this was not improved by his suspected half-hearted religious support for the Kirk and his economic interference. Trade and protectionism were central to England's growth to superpower status with monopolies in both India and Africa. Similar power status had been lost when Charles I had sold Nova Scotia to the French.[23] The Scots were excluded from trade, unless the goods originated in Scotland. Thus most of Scotland's cash was invested in a trading colony named Darian in Panama to tranship goods via Panama to and from India. Perversely, William confronted them, by denying continental finance and support from England, Jamaica and Spain. The result was a Scottish disaster: 2,000 colonists and the investment were lost and Scotland blamed William, who died in 1702. (A side effect was that Scots emigrated to the colonies in increasing numbers and there are now more Scots (and their descendants) in America than in Scotland. In turn, this began to impact on the clan system in Scotland as manpower began to fall.)

Scotland Fades

By the time Anne was Queen Scottish hatred for England had increased. Deep economic concerns had surfaced and the Scots' economy was in bad shape. Since the English monopolised trade Scotland's economic survival might lie in an English deal. The English were not interested, but the canny Scots used psychology and paranoia. England was at war with France and was also against another Stuart 'Restoration'. The English planned to import the Hanoverian Princess Sophia, a granddaughter of James VI, so the Scottish Parliament passed laws for a Stuart succession, improved defensive measures, and increased French wine import. The English were caught between collaboration and guaranteed trouble. They agreed to Union, a Hanoverian succession and a united flag. Jacobite bluster (including Seaforth's) against Union brought Marlborough north and, in 1707, both Parliaments passed The Act of Union ending Scotland's sovereignty.

Union was unpopular, made worse by English heavy-handed parliamentary domination and insistence of taxation authority over Scotland. The 1713 House of Lords almost repealed Union and in this emotional climate support grew for Prince James Edward, in France. James was Queen Anne's half brother and claimed both thrones. However, on Anne's death in 1714, Sophia's son, George I, was proclaimed king in Edinburgh. Had James taken the initiative and declared himself Protestant, raised a debate in Parliament or encouraged the Chiefs he might well have gained the throne. He did nothing and the unpopular George survived despite language, party politics, the rejection of the Chiefs, and the loss of Lowland support. Scots, began to drink to 'The King over the water' and the end of Scotland, any pretence of independence, Mackenzie power and Highland way of life.[24]

In 1715, James wrote to the Earl of Mar and asked him to raise the Clans. Of 12,000 men who rallied 3,000 were Mackenzie's. Mackenzie family fortunes had briefly glimmered as James then in exile had created Kenneth, IV Earl of Seaforth a Marquess. William Mackenzie, V Earl of Seaforth (and the unrecognised II Marquis of Seaforth) lost all his titles for leading 3,000 men who fought in the 1715 Rising.[25] James VIII was proclaimed king and Perth was seized, but the incompetent Mar was defeated at Sheriffmuir. The Spanish provided some support at Loch Alsh to Seaforth and the Earl Marshal, but the Rebellion was over and James fled to France. Many Scots were sent to the colonies and some Scottish peerages were forfeited, including the Earldom of Seaforth. The Jacobites were routed and the Spaniards surrendered at Glen Shiel in 1719. The government pursued Highland subjection by outlawing Gaelic, the tartan, and the carrying of arms.

The English General Wade, built key roads and the Forts William, Augustus, and George in the Highlands. The Black Watch Regiment, raised for police duties, first fought as a British army unit in the Netherlands in 1742. European wars involving Britain and Spain expanded to France in 1740. This raised Jacobite hopes and while James remained in Rome, his son Prince Charles Edward pawned his mother's rubies and sailed for Scotland.[26] When met in the Hebrides by Macleod, and MacDonald of Sleat, who urged him to go home; he replied that he 'was home'. James'standard was raised on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan before supporting Camerons and Macdonalds. In Edinburgh, in September, James VIII was confirmed king and Charles was triumphant.

Prince Charles Edward Stuart

Prince Charles

 

The great clans waited to see if Charles would be successful before committing troops; and he was. Government troops lost a battle to him at Preston Pans near Edinburgh. The Highland charge was a terrifying blend of blood curdling yells and waving heavy Claymore swords: Government forces broke and ran. This brought Charles reinforcements, which he failed to exploit. Charles' instinct was for bold action and he moved towards London, reaching Derby and causing a panic in London. Reluctantly, he was persuaded to return to Scotland for many sensible reasons.

Charles then accused his advisors of betrayal since he had lost his critical political momentum. Nonetheless he returned to Scotland, while many of the Clans, led by the Earl of Seaforth, protected themselves from an inevitable victor's retaliation by supporting George I. In their collective judgement of inevitable failure Charles had failed to convince his peers. There was probably no betrayal and the charge was probably only made to meet his own guilt, for Charles knew that this was the end. However, the betrayal question does add to the lore and legends surrounding Bonnie Prince Charlie. After his death, Charlie became the focus for Scottish nationalism, romantic nostalgia for a lost Eden and even gentility.[27]

Charles' last success was at Falkirk, where the Highlanders again put the English to flight and again Charles failed to follow up his success. The English lost no time in building up their army with well-equipped regular troops from Holland. Under the Duke of Cumberland they assembled at Aberdeen. On 15 April 1746, Bonnie Prince Charlie assembled 6,000 Highlanders faced government forces led by the Duke of Cumberland on Drumossie Moor, now Culloden Moor, south of Inverness.[28] The site is open and boggy, with clear lines of fire for disciplined forces and no broken ground to provide cover for typical Highland guerrilla tactics. The English outnumbered the Scots by two to one and had well sited artillery, which tore the Highlanders apart. Lord Murray was Charles' unimaginative military commander and on 16 April the results of his unsuccessful attack the night before were all too apparent; the exhausted Scots were wet and unfed. In tears Charles watched his army being routed. The butcher's tally was ~1,500 Highlanders killed as opposed to 50 government soldiers. Battle ended the Jacobite rebellion and led to suppression of Highland culture.

When defeat was complete, Charles left Culloden and despite a 30,000 reward, he stayed in Scotland and evaded capture for five months. At one point Lady Fortrose (Mackenzie) fed him as he made his way through Kintail over the sea to Skye and history. With Prince Charles' departure, Scotland, the Highlands, the Clans and even the Mackenzies were finished. As Maclean wrote, "...In Cumberland they found the ideal instrument for this task [a final reckoning with the Highlanders]. He carried it out with characteristically Teutonic thoroughness and gusto."[29] After Culloden, no quarter was given and prisoners were shot, hung, or burned alive as was convenient. Clans, which had been loyal to Prince Charles, had their property looted and devastated. More lands and titles were forfeited and a deliberate attempt made to destroy the entire Clan system. The 1746 Disarming Act forbade the carrying of arms, the wearing of a tartan or the possession of bagpipes. When the Prince left Flora MacDonald on 1 July 1746, he escaped to Raasay Island with the Raasay Macleods. The effect of Cumberland's vengeance is quoted from the Stuart Papers in the Royal Archives

"On Raasay the effects of Cumberland's devastation of the Highlands were only too plain to see. There had been three hundred cottages on the island. Not one was left standing. Cumberland's licentious soldiery had pillaged, raped and murdered their way from one end of the island to the other. When told of Cumberland's atrocities, the prince found them hard to believe: such actions were against all known laws of civilised behaviour."[30]

 The Jacobite threat to the English order was stopped. Although James squandered support, his charismatic son was apparently a bonnie Prince with a good mind and a flair for strategy well beyond his advisor, General Murray. Charles was a strong, good-looking man and trained in all the military skills of his day. Although his 1746 failure left him isolated and alcoholic, he was also intelligent, musical and multi-lingual. In the end his father retained all the power Charles might have been better able to exploit on the ground.

Battle of Culloden: 15-16 April 1746

'As far as I could distinguish, at the distance of twenty paces, the English appeared to be drawn up in six (actually three) ranks, the three first being upon their knees, and keeping up a terrible running fire on us. My unfortunate friend Scothouse was killed by my side, but I was not so deeply affected at the moment of his fall as I have been ever since' .

The Chevalier de Johnstone, who charged with the Glengarry Macdonalds against Pulteney's Regiment.

Culloden marked the end of Scotland as a separate state. Cumberland enforced Union with Britain. It was only a small step from Culloden to the clearances of highland land and the expulsion of faithful highlanders to make room for economically profitable sheep. Steel noted that Highland "...Chiefs became caught up in the Lowland concept of commercial landlordism...."[31] In turn, the clearances and the success of the American War of Independence resulted in a mass migration, many leaving home to join the army and their friends who had already emgrated. The Scots did their best to meet social changes introduced by industrialisation, improved technology, architecture, and medical knowledge. In the end however, the Highlands were emptied, perhaps for lack of opportunity. They remain empty today.

Highland Emigration Ports: c1840

Near the Earl of Cromartie's Castle Leod is the Eagle stone carved by a Pictish artist in the late seventh century. The symbols are pre-Christian and their meaning is uncertain, but may represent a memorial to a chief, a territorial marker, or a marriage alliance. The carving is typical of Pictish art and is one of a number of birds and beasts carved on similar stones elsewhere in Ross and Cromarty.[32]

ENDNOTES

1          Lloyd and Jenny Laing, The Picts and the Scots, p. ix.

2          Bertram, Doorways Through Time, pp. 174-175 describes the Sutton Hoo discovery, seventy miles Northeast of London. The Sutton Hoo Anglo-Saxon king was buried with a complete eighty-nine foot boat and a collection of Merovingian gold coins from 625-630 AD, thus dating the Anglo-Saxons.

3          Fitzroy Maclean, Scotland, p. 18.

4          The term Viking may derive from Vik, or bay. They would thus be the people of the bay. This is understood to indicate the fiords and farm pasturage at the bottom of the steep Norwegian headlands. Farmers on flat Denmark were similarly based on sheltered waters. Vik survives in English as wick, as in Lerwick, the Shetland's capital.  Wick later came to mean market, since bays were often home to markets.

5          Else Roesdahl, The Vikings, pp. 210-211. The first earl was Einar.

6          The Wilsons (and thus the variant Willisons) descended from Orkney Vikings.

7          His son, also Kenneth, moved the capital to Scone, for his coronation, the first of a tradition.

8          Confusingly, the Scots spell this as Stuart and the English as Stewart, but both derive from the notion of steward, a person entrusted with management of another's property.

9          Michel Lynch, Scotland, A New History, pp. 114-117.

10             John Robinson, Dungeon, Fire and Sword, pp. 413-414. Robinson describes the early Wallace successes and Edward's decision to ask the English Templars to fight against the Scots. Bruce may also have used ex-Templars at Bannockburn. The Saxon Chronicle, notes Scot support for Templars in 1128.

11             Cited in Fitzroy Maclean, Scotland, p. 45. This quote is taken from an inscription on a sword The Bruce gave to Sir James Douglas.   Note it is written in English.

12             Ibid, p. 68.

13             Relationships between Mary and Catherine de Medici, Queen of France, are described in Lady Antonia Fraser's Mary Queen of Scots, p. 102.

14             Fitzroy Maclean, Scotland, p. 93.

15             Edith Sitwell, The Queens and the Hive, pp. 217-270.

16             James was the first Stuart king of both Scotland and England, thereby being both James VI and I.

17             HCB Rogers, The Pagentry of Heraldry, p. 114. Notes Union Flag is the Monarch's fighting flag.

18             Many Scots, like General Leslie served as mercenaries for the Swedish Gustavus Adolphus.

19             Michel Lynch, Scotland, A New History, pp. 271-274.

20             Fitzroy Maclean, Scotland, p. 125.

21             Jacobite derives from a Biblical reference to Saint James' supporters. In an era of high religious emotions Jacobite was used to define Stuart supporters. Most Stuart kings were named James.

22             Fitzroy Maclean, Scotland, pp. 145-146.

23             Ibid, p. 148.

24             John Prebble, The Highland Clearances, discusses this emotive issue.

25             Mackenzie Mackenzie, The Genealogy of the Stem of the Family of Mackenzie, Marquesses and Earls of Seaforth, p 4.

26             King James II of England created Bonnie Prince Charlie the Prince of Wales as a baby.

27             Frank McLynn, Bonnie Prince Charlie, p. 557.

28             JD Mackie, A History of Scotland, p. 278 says that Charles had an army of about 8,000 at Falkirk in January. The discrepancy represents detachments and desertion from the ill-fed army. Lord Fortrose stayed away from Prince Charles, to spare his 'poor family'.   However, the Earl of Cromartie and the Baronet of Coul called out five hundred Mackenzies. Cromartie's 'Regiment' fought at Falkirk in January and was detached north to prevent Lord Loudon from bringing reinforcements to the Duke of Cumberland. Cromartie fought a battle on 15 April, 1746 at Dunrobin, but the Mackenzies lost.  The Earl and more than one hundred Mackenzies were taken prisoner.

29             Fitzroy Maclean, Scotland, p. 181.

30             Royal Archives, Stuart Papers, M 11, p. 314, cited in Frank McLynn, Bonnie Prince Charlie, p. 287.

31             Tom Steel, Scotland's Story, pp. 244-257.

32             Ross and Cromartie Highland Heritage marker near the Earl of Cromartie's Castle Leod

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