ENGLISH COMMANDERS IN BNA: 1681-1730

Introduction

In 1707, the English and Scots parliaments voted to pass the Act of Union between their two countries. The newly named British continued to follow up their colonial interests in North America. The following table identifies many of their leaders.[1] Dates indicate service. British attention first began with fish and Newfoundland. Colonies were used as pawns to help make peace at the end of various conflicts, but the implied sovereign-ownership is accurate for the specific periods indicated.

The significant North American events of the century were the 1754-1761 Seven Years' War, and the sequel American Revolution of 1776. Fighting the Dutch, French and Spanish, British attention shifted to the 13 colonies on the eastern seaboard. After 1783, British focus shifted back to Québec and the remaining colonies in North America, and the generic term ‘British North America’ (BNA) was coined. (The term British West Indies (BWI) was used to define the Caribbean colonies.) Since Canada was not created until 1867, initial Canadian colonial history is focused in Québec.

The names are listed chronologically. Appointments are shown for the years only: note that titles changed over time. The most senior ranks are shown for the period of service - despite later promotions. I have not included all colonial British incumbents for sake of data bulk: but I have included most Canadian and American appointees, plus those in incidental Carribean and Central and South American positions. I have shown significant actions for some individuals.

Name

Appointment

Dates

Richard Waldron President of New Hampshire
1681-1682
Anthony Brockholls Acting / Governor of New York
1681-1683
Samuel Jennings Acting / Governor of West Jersey
1681-1684
William Markham Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania
Deputy Governor of Delaware
Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania
1681-1682
1691-1693
1693-1699
Thomas Rudyard Acting / Governor of East Jersey
1682-1683
Joseph Morton Governor of Carolina
1682-1684
1685-1686

Edward Cranfield Governor of New Hampshire
1682-1685
Henry Erskine, Baron Cardross Governor of Charlesfort (South Carolina)
1682-1686
Robert Barclay Governor of East Jersey
1682-1690
Nicholas Spencer Governor of Virginia
1683-1684
William Coddington, Jr Governor of Rhode Island
1683-1685
Gawen Lawrie Acting / Governor of East Jersey
1683-1686
Robert Treat Governor of Connecticut
1683-1687
1689-1698
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dongan Governor of New York
1683-1688
Francis Howard, 5 Baron Howard of Effingham Governor of Virginia
1683-1692
Richard Kyrle Governor of Carolina
1684
Robert Quarry Governor of Carolina
1684-1685
Thomas Olive Acting / Governor of West Jersey
1684-1685
Hender Molesworth Acting / Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
1684-1687
1688-1689
Benedict Leonard Calvert Governor of Maryland
1684-1688
Thomas Lloyd President of the Council of Pennsylvania
Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania
Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
1684-1688
1690-1693
1702-1704
1705-1708
Nathaniel Bacon Acting / Governor of Virginia
1684
1687
1689- -1690
Walter Barefoote Acting / Governor of New Hampshire
1685-1686
Henry Bull Governor of Rhode Island
1685-1686
1687-1690
John Skene Acting / Governor of West Jersey
1685-1687
Neill Campbell, Baron Campbell Acting / Governor of East Jersey
1686
Joseph Dudley Governor in Chief of New England
Governor of Massachusetts Bay
Governor of Massachusetts
1686
1686-1687
1702-1716

John Coggeshall Acting / Governor of Rhode Island
1686-1687
Andrew Hamilton Acting / Governor of East Jersey
Governor of East Jersey

Governor of West Jersey

Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1686-1688
1692-1698
1699-1703
1692-1698
1699-1703
1701-1703
James Colleton Governor of Carolina
1686-1690
Edward Hunloke Governor of West Jersey
1687-1688
Daniel Coxe Lord Proprietary of West Jersey
Governor of West Jersey
1687-1688
1687-1692
William, I Earl of Craven Lord Proprietary of Carolina
1687-1697
William Joseph Acting / Governor of Maryland
1688-1689
John Blackwell Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania
1688-1690
Francis Nicholson Governor of New York
Acting / Governor of Virginia
Governor of Maryland
Governor of Virginia
Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor of South Carolina
1688-1691
1690-1692
1694-1699
1698-1705
1712-1715
1721-1725
Francis Watson Acting / Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
1689-1690
John Coode Governor of Maryland
1689-1691
Philip Ludwell Governor of Carolina "that lyes North and East of Cape feare”
Governor of Carolina
1689-1691
1692-1694
William O'Brien, II Earl of Inchiquin Governor of Jamaica
1690-1691
Sir William Phips, Baronet Commander Acadia & Québec Expeditions
Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor of Massachusetts Bay
1690
1690-1691
1692-1694
John Easton Governor of Rhode Island
1690-1695
Henry Sloughter Governor of New York
1691
Nehemiah Blakiston Acting / Governor of Maryland
1691-1692
John White Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1691-1692
Richard Ingoldsby Acting / Governor of New York
1691-1692
1709-1710
Lionel Copley Governor of Maryland
1692-1693
John Burden Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1692-1693
John Usher Governor of New Hampshire
1692-1697
Benjamin Fletcher Governor of New York
Captain-general of Pennsylvania
1692-1698
1693-1694
Thomas Lawrence Governor of Maryland
1693
1694
Thomas Smith Governor of Carolina
1693-1694
Nicholas Greenberry Governor of Maryland
1693-1694
Sir William Beeston Governor of Jamaica
1693-1702
Joseph Blake Governor of Carolina
1694
1696-1700

John Archdale Acting / Governor of Carolina
1694-1696
Thomas Harvey Deputy Governor of Carolina "that lyes North and East of Cape feare”
1694-1699
William Stoughton Acting / Governor of Massachusetts
1694-1699
1700-1701
Caleb Carr Governor of Rhode Island
1695-1696
William Partridge Governor of New Hampshire
1697-1697
1701-1702
Sir Peter Colleton Lord Proprietary of Carolina
1697-1717
Ralph Wormeley Acting / Governor of Virginia
1698
Samuel Allen Governor of New Hampshire
1698-1699
Captain Samuel Vetch Councillor of Darien
Governor of Nova Scotia
1698-1699
1710-1712
Jeremiah Basse Governor of East Jersey
Governor of West Jersey
1698-1699
1698-1699
Fitz-John Winthrop Governor of Connecticut
1698-1707
Samuel Cranston Governor of Rhode Island
1698-1727
Richard Coote, I Earl of Bellomont Governor of New York
Governor of Massachusetts
1699-1701
1699-1700
Nathaniel Blakistone Governor of Maryland
1699-1702
Henderson Walker Acting / Deputy Governor of Carolina "that lyes North and East of Cape feare”
1699-1704
William Byrd Acting / Governor of Virginia
1700
1703
1704
Michael Richards Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
1700-1702
James Moore Governor of Carolina
Governor of South Carolina
1700-1703
1717-1721
John Nanfan Acting / Governor of New York
1701-1702
William Selwyn Governor of Jamaica
1702
Peter Beckford Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1702
Thomas Handasyde Governor of Jamaica
1702-1711
Thomas Tench Governor of Maryland
1702-1704
Edward Hyde, Viscount of Cornbury Governor of New York
Governor of North Carolina
1702-1708
1710-1712
Edward Shippen Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania and President of the Council
1703-1704
Sir Nathaniel Johnson Governor of Carolina
1703-1708
John Moody Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
1704-1705
1712-1719
Robert Daniel Acting / Deputy Governor of Carolina
Governor of South Carolina
1704-1705
1716-1717

John Evans Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1704-1709
John Seymour Governor of Maryland
1704-1709
Field Marshal George Hamilton Douglas, I Earl of Orkney Governor of Virginia
1704-1737
Edward Nott Acting / Governor of Virginia
1705-1706
Thomas Cary Acting / Deputy Governor of Carolina
1705-1706 1708-1710
William Glover Acting / Deputy Governor of Carolina
1706-1708
Edmund Jennings Acting / Governor of Virginia
1706-1710
Gurdon Saltonstall Governor of Connecticut
1707-1724
John Lovelace, 4 Baron Lovelace of Hurley  Governor of New York
1708-1709
Francis Jenkins Governor of Maryland
1709
Colonel Pieter van Schuyler[2] Acting / Governor of New York
1709
1719-1720
Edward Tynte Governor of Carolina
1709-1710
John Collins Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
1709-1712
Edward Lloyd Governor of Maryland
1709-1714
Charles Gookin Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1709-1717
Gerardus Beekman, Colonel[3] Acting / Governor of New York
1710
Robert Gibbes Governor of South Carolina
1710-1711
Robert Hunter Governor of New York
Governor of Jamaica
1710-1719
1728-1734
Alexander Spotswood Acting / Governor of Virginia
1710-1722
Sir Hovenden Walker Governor of Cape Breton Island  (Île Royale)
1711-1713
Archibald Hamilton, Baron Governor of Jamaica
1711-1716
Charles Craven Governor of South Carolina
1711-1716
Thomas Pollock Acting / Governor of North Carolina
1712-1714
1722
Thomas Caufield Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1712-1717
John Hart Governor of Maryland
1714-1720
Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4 Baron of Baltimore Lord Proprietary of Maryland
1715
William Tailer Acting / Governor of Massachusetts
1715-1716
1730
Captain Thomas Caulfield Governor of Nova Scotia
1715-1717
Charles Calvert, 5 Baron of Baltimore Lord Proprietary of Maryland
Governor of Maryland
1715-1751
1720-1727
1732-1773
Peter Heywood Governor of Jamaica
1716-1718
Samuel Shute Governor of Massachusetts
Governor of New Hampshire

1716-1723
1716-1723

Robert Johnson Governor of South Carolina
1717-1719
1729-1735

John Doucett Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
1717-1725
Sir William Keith Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1717-1726
Lieutenant Colonel Richard Philipps Governor of Nova Scotia
Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland

1717-1749
1719-1735
Sir Nicholas Lawes Governor of Jamaica
1718-1722
Hannah Penn Lord Proprietary of Pennsylvania
1718-1726
John Penn Lord Proprietary of Pennsylvania
Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1718-1746
1763-1771
Richard Penn Lord Proprietary of Pennsylvania
Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1718-1771
1771-1773
1773-1776

Thomas Penn Lord Proprietary of Pennsylvania
1718-1775
Samuel Gledhill Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
1719
Thomas Brooke Governor of Maryland
1720
William Burnet Governor of New York
Governor of Massachusetts
Governor of New Hampshire
1720-1728
1728-1729
1728-1730
William Reed Governor of North Carolina
1722-1724
Henry Bentnick, 1 Duke of Portland Governor of Jamaica
1722-1726
Hugh Drysdale Acting / Governor of Virginia
1722-1726
John Wentworth Governor of New Hampshire
1723-1728
1767-1775
William Dummer Acting / Governor of Massachusetts
1723-1728
1729-1730
George Burrington Governor of North Carolina
1724-1725
1731-1734
Joseph Talcott Governor of Connecticut
1724-1741
Arthur Middleton Governor of South Carolina
1725-1729
Richard Everard Governor of North Carolina
1725-1731
Lieutenant Colonel Lawrence Armstrong (died 6 December 1739 at Annapolis Royal) Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
1725-1739
Robert Carter Acting / Governor of Virginia
1726-1727
John Ayscough Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1726-1728
1734-1735
Patrick Gordon Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1726-1736
Benedict Leonard Calvert Governor of Maryland
1727-1731
Joseph Jenckes Governor of Rhode Island
1727-1732
Sir William Gooch Acting / Governor of Virginia
1727-1749
John Montgomerie Governor of New York
1728-1731
Captain Henry Osborne, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1729-1730
Jonathan Belcher Governor of Massachusetts
Governor of New Hampshire
Governor of New Jersey
Governor of Nova Scotia
1730-1741
1730-1741
1747-1757
1760-1763

ENDNOTES

1             I am indebted for much of the data to Index of Colonies and Possessions, at http://www.worldstatesmen.org/#U, the data there are quite specific, well organised, accurate, and very helpful. I also found individual Wikipedia state sites to be helpful. For the confusing Carolinas I also used http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/hp/colonial/Bookshelf/countie/countapp2.htm. Also see Frank McLynn, 1759, the Year Britain Became Master of the World, http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~boug2.html, http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/fr/page_233.asp, http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/SevenYearsWar-FrenchandIndianWar-BattleofthePlainsofAbraham.htm, and Fred Anderson, Crucible of War..

2             A Dutchman, acting under British government direction and authority.

3             A Dutchman, acting under British government direction and authority.

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