BRITISH COMMANDERS IN BNA: 1731-1775

Introduction

In 1707, the English and Scots parliaments voted to pass the Act of Union between their two countries. The newly named British continued to follow up their colonial interests in North America. The following table identifies many of their leaders.[1] Dates indicate service. British attention first began with fish and Newfoundland. Colonies were used as pawns to help make peace at the end of various conflicts, but the implied sovereign-ownership is accurate for the specific periods indicated.

The significant North American events of the century were the 1754-1761 Seven Years' War, and the sequel American Revolution of 1776. Fighting the Dutch, French and Spanish, British attention shifted to the 13 colonies on the eastern seaboard. After 1783, British focus shifted back to Québec and the remaining colonies in North America, and the generic term ‘British North America’ (BNA) was coined. (The term British West Indies (BWI) was used to define the Caribbean colonies.) Since Canada was not created until 1867, initial Canadian colonial history is focused in Québec.

The names are listed chronologically. Appointments are shown for the years only: note that titles changed over time. The most senior ranks are shown for the period of service - despite later promotions. I have not included all colonial British incumbents for sake of data bulk: but I have included most Canadian and American appointees, plus those in incidental Carribean and Central and South American positions. I have shown significant actions for some individuals.

Louisbourg

Name

Appointment

Dates

Captain George Clinton, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1731-1732
Samuel Ogle Governor of Maryland
1731-1732
1733-1742
1747-1752
Rip Van Dam Acting / Governor of New York
1731-1732
Captain Edward Falkingham, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1732
William Wanton Governor of Rhode Island
1732-1733
William Cosby Governor of New York
1732-1736
Captain Robert MacCarty, Viscount Muskerry, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1733-1734
Colonel James Edward Oglethorpe Resident Trustee of Georgia
1733-1743
Thomas Broughton Acting / Governor of South Carolina
1734-1737
John Wanton Governor of Rhode Island
1734-1740
Gabriel Johnston Governor of North Carolina
1734-1752
John Gregory Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1735
1736-1738
Henry Cunninghame Governor of Jamaica
1735-1736
Captain Fitzroy Henry Lee, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1735-1737
James Logan Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania and President of the Council
1736-1738
George Clarke Governor of New York
1736-1743
William Bull Acting / Governor of South Carolina
1737-1743
1760-1761
1764- 1766
1773-1775

William Anne Keppel, II Earl of Albemarle Governor of Virginia
1737-1754
Captain Philip van Brugh, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1738
Thomas Gage, 1 Viscount Gage Governor of Barbados
1738-1739
Lewis Morris Governor of New Jersey
1738-1746
George Thomas Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1738-1747
Edward Trelawny Governor of Jamaica
1738-1752
Captain Henry Medley, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1739
Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Cosby (died 27  December 1742 at Annapolis Royal) Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
1739-1740
Captain George Graham, Baron, RN Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1740
Richard Ward Governor of Rhode Island
1740-1743
Lieutenant Colonel Paul Mascarene Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
1740-1749
Admiral, the Honourable Edward Boscawen Subordinate Commander at Siege of Cartegena
Fleet Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
1741
1758
Lieutenant General Sir William Shirley, Kt Governor of Massachusetts

Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Governor of the Bahamas
1741-1749
1753-1757
1755
1761-1769
Jonathan Law Governor of Connecticut
1741-1750
Benning Wentworth Governor of New Hampshire
1741-1767
Thomas Bladen Governor of Maryland
1742-1747
William Greene Governor of Rhode Island
1743-1745
1746-1747
1748-1755
1757-1758
William Stephens President of Georgia
1743-1751
George Clinton Governor of New York
1743-1753
James Glen Governor of South Carolina
1743-1756
Admiral, Sir Peter Warren Fleet Commander at Siege of Fort Louisbourg
Governor of Cape Breton Island  (Île Royale)
1745
1745-1746
Lieutenant General Sir William Pepperell, Baronet Commander-in-chief Expedition & Captured Fort Louisbourg
Commander of Maine and New Hampshire frontiers
Acting / Governor of Massachusetts
1745
1755-1759
1757

Major General John Bradstreet

Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland
Adjutant General of BNA
Subordinate Commander at Attack of Fort Carillon, Quartermaster General of BNA
Commander at Capture of Fort Frontenac
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Carillon
Commander of Western Expedition during Pontiac's War

1745
1745-1755
1755-1757
1758
1758
1759
1764
1764

Gideon Wanton Governor of Rhode Island
1745-1746
1747-1748
John Hamilton Acting / Governor of New Jersey
1746
John Reading Acting / Governor of New Jersey
1746-1747
1757-1758
Anthony Palmer Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania and President of the Council
1747-1748
James Hamilton Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania

President of the Council
1748-1754 1759-1763
1771

Brigadier General Samuel Waldo

Elected Memeber of the Falmouth General Court
Appointed County Probate Judge
Elected Member of the Massachusetts Legislature

1748-1763
1760
1760-1768

John Robinson Acting / Governor of Virginia
1749
Thomas Lee Acting / Governor of Virginia
1749-1750
Lieutenant-Colonel, the Honourable Edward Cornwallis Governor of Nova Scotia
Captain-General of Nova Scotia
1749-1752
1749-1752
Spencer Phips Acting / Governor of Massachusetts
1749-1753
1756-1757
Lewis Burwell Acting / Governor of Virginia
1750-1751
Roger Wolcott Governor of Connecticut
1750-1754
Henry Parker President of Georgia
1751-1752
Robert Dinwiddie Acting / Governor of Virginia
1751-1758
Nathaniel Rice Governor of North Carolina
1752-1753
Patrick Graham President of Georgia
1751-1752
Frederick Calvert, 6 Baron of Baltimore Lord Proprietary of Maryland
1751-1771
Benjamin Tasker Governor of Maryland
1752-1753
Charles Knowles Governor of Jamaica
1752-1756
Major General Peregrine Thomas Hopson (died 27 February 1759 at Guadeloupe) Governor of Nova Scotia
Commander of Attack on Martinique and Guadeloupe
1752-1756
1759
Sir Danvers Osborn Governor of New York
1753
Benjamin Franklin Joint Deputy Postmaster-General of North America
Pennsylvania Colonial Agent to Britain
Pennsylvania Colonial Agent to the Crown
1753
1757-1763
1764-1775
Matthew Rowan Governor of North Carolina
1753-1754
James de Lancey[2] Governor of New York
1753-1755
1757-1760
Brigadier General Charles Lawrence[3] (died 19 October 1760 at Halifax) Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor of Nova Scotia
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
1753-1756
1760-1763
1758
Lieutenant Colonel Horatio Sharpe Governor of Maryland
Acting / Commander-in-Chief of BNA[4]
1753-1768
1754-1755
Robert Hunter Morris Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania
1754-1756
John Reynolds Governor of Georgia
1754-1757
Major General John Winslow Commanded a Massachusetts military Expedition to Kennebec Maine
Commanded Massachusetts Militia
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Beauséjour
Subordinate Commander of the Acadian Clearances
1754
1754-1757
1755
1756
Colonel George Washington Commanded Diplomatic Expedition to Fort Duquesne
Commanded Defence of Fort Necessity
Commanded Virginia Provincial Forces
Subordinate Commander at the Battle of Monongahela
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Duquesne
1754
1754
1754-1758
1755
1758
Arthur Dobbs Governor of North Carolina
1754-1765
Thomas Fitch Governor of Connecticut
1754-1766
Major General Edward Braddock (killed 9 July 1755 at the Monongahela) Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Commander at the Battle of Monongahela
1755
1755
Lieutenant General the Honourable Thomas Gage Subordinate Commander at the Battle of the Monongahela
Subordinate Commander at the Attack of Fort Carillon
Commander of Fort Albany
Subordinate Commander at the Capture of Montréal
Military Governor of Montréal
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Royal Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Massachusetts
Commander of the Battle of Bunker Hill
1755
1758
1759
1760
1760-1763
1763-1773
1774-1775
1775
Major General Robert Monckton[5] Commander at Capture of Fort Beauséjour
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Commander of the Acadian Clearance in New Brunswick
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Québec
Commander of the Southern District
Commander at Capture of Martinique
Governor of New York
1755
1755-1758
1756-1758
1759
1760-1762
1762
1762-1765
Major General William George Johnson, Mohawk Baronet Northern Superintendent of Indian Affairs
Commanded the Defence at Lake George
Commanded at the Capture of Fort Niagara
1755
1755
1759
Sir Charles Hardy Governor of New York
1755-1757
Stephen Hopkins Governor of Rhode Island
1755-1757
1758-1762
1763-1765
1767-1768
Major General Phineas Lyman Commander of Connecticut Provincial Forces
1755-1762
Major General James Robertson, DQMG Junior Commander in BNA
Appointed Deputy Quarter Master General, America
Appointed to Staff in BNA
Commander of 6th Brigade at Long Island
Governor of New York
Commander-in-Chief in Virginia
1756-1757
1757-1765
1765-1776
1776-1778
1779-1781
1781
Major General Daniel Webb Acting / Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1756-1757
Lieutenant General Frederick Haldimand

Junior Commander in BNA during the Seven Years' War
Junior Commander Defeated at the Failed Battle for Fort Ticonderoga Commander at Successful Defence of Fort Oswego against French
Subordinate Commander at the Siege of Montréal
Commanded at Trois Rivières
Commanded in Florida
A / British North America Commander-in-Chief
Governor of Québec
Governor General of British North America

1756-1758
1758
1759
1760
1760-1766
1766-1768
1773-1775
1778-1784
1778-1784
Major General John Campbell, IV Earl of Loudoun Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Governor of Virginia
1756-1758
1756-1763
Major General James Abercrombie, Baron of Glasshaugh[6] Deputy Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Acting / Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1756-1758
1758-1759
William Denny Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
1756-1759
Major General Augustine Prevost Junior Commander in BNA
Junior Commander in Capture of Québec
Commander of the Occupation of Georgia & Capture of Savannah
Commander of the Defence of Savannah
1756-1759
1759
1778-1782
1779
Sir Henry Moore Governor of Jamaica

Governor of New York
1756-1759
1759-1762
1765-1769
Major General John Stanwix Commanded Southern District (New York & Pennsylvania Frontier)
1756-1760
William Henry Lyttelton Governor of South Carolina
Governor of Jamaica
1756-1760
1762-1766
General John Campbell, 17 Baron of Strachur Junior Commander in BNA
Subordinate Commander in Capture of Martinique & Cuba
Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution
Commander of West Florida, Defeated by Spanish
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1756-1762
1762-1773
1773-1778
1778-1781
1783-1787
Thomas Pownall Governor of Massachusetts
1757-1760
Henry Ellis Governor of Georgia
1757-1760
Acting / Brigadier General George Augustus Howe, 3 Viscount Howe, (killed 6 July 1758 at Fort Ticonderoga) Deputy Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1758
Acting / Brigadier General John Forbes (died 11 March 1758 at Philadelphia) Commander at Capture of Fort du Quesne
1758
Major General Simon Fraser of Lovat Junior Commander at the Siege of Fort Louisbourg
Junior Commander at the Battle of Québec
Junior Commander at the Capture of St John's
Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution
1758
1759-1760
1761
1776-1783
Acting / Brigadier General Simon Fraser of Balnain, (killed 7 October 1777 at Bemis Heights) Junior Commander at the Siege of Fort Louisbourg
Junior Commander at the Battle of Québec
Commanded a brigade in Carleton's Campaign
Commander of General Burgoyne's Advance Guard
Subordinate Commander at Battles of Saratoga
1758
1759-1760
1776
1777
1777
Lieutenant General William Howe, KB Subordinate Commander at the Siege of Fort Louisbourg
Commanded the Advanced Guard in the Assault of Québec
Subordinate Commander at the Capture of Havana
Commanded the Attack at Bunker Hill
Governor of Massachusetts
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
British Peace Commissioner
Commanded the Capture of Philadelphia and New Jersey
1758
1759
1762
1775
1775-1776
1775-1778
1776-1778
1777
John Blair Acting / Governor of Virginia
1758
1768

Lieutenant General Geoffrey Amherst, KB, 1 Baron Amherst Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg and Cape Breton
Commander at the Battle of Québec
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Commander of Attack on Montréal
Governor General of Québec
Governor of Virginia
1758
1759
1758-1763
1759
1760-1763
1763-1768
Lieutenant Colonel Montague Wilmont (died 23 May 1766 at Halifax) Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor of Nova Scotia
1758
1763
1764-1766
Brigadier General George Townshend Subordinate Commander at Capture of Québec
1759
Sir Francis Bernard Governor of New Jersey
Governor of Massachusetts
1758-1760
1760-1769
Francis Fauquier Acting / Governor of Virginia
1758-1768
Acting / Major General James Wolfe (killed 13 September 1759 at Québec) Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
Commander at Capture of Québec
1758
1759
Brigadier General William Whitmore Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
Commander of Cape Breton
1758-1763
Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Burton Subordinate Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Québec
Governor of Trois-Rivières
Military Governor of Montréal
1758
1759
1760-1762
1763-1764
Acting / Major General John Barrington Deputy Commander of Attack on Martinique
Commander of Attack on Guadeloupe
1759

Vice Admiral Sir Charles Saunders

Fleet Commander of the Attack and Capture of Québec
1759

Rear Admiral Charles Holmes

Subordinate Squadron Commander of the Attack and Capture of Québec
Commander-in-Chief at Jamaica
1759
1760
George Haldane Governor of Jamaica
1759
Brigadier General John Prideaux (killed 20 July 1759 at Niagara) Commander of Attack at Niagara
1759
Brigadier General James Murray Subordinate Commander at Capture of Québec
Subordinate Commander of Attack on Montréal
Governor of Québec
Governor of Canada
1759
1760
1764-1768
1764-1768
Brigadier General William Haviland Commander of Attack on l'Île-aux-Noix
Subordinate Commander of Attack on Montréal
1760
Thomas Hutchinson Governor of Massachusetts
1760
1769-1774
Thomas Boone Governor of New Jersey
Governor of South Carolina
1760-1761
1761-1764
Cadwallader Colden Acting / Governor of New York
1760-1761
1763-1765
1769-1770
James Wright Governor of Georgia
1760-1775
Josiah Hardy Governor of New Jersey
1761-1763
General George Keppel, III Earl of Albemarle Commander-in-Chief Invasion of Cuba
Governor of Cuba
1762
1762-1763
Major General Charles Grey Junior Commander at the Siege of Havana
Commander of 3rd Brigade during the American Revolution
Commander of 3rd Brigade at the Battle of Germantown
1762
1777-1778
1777
William Rufane

Governor of Martinique

1762-1763
Samuel Ward Governor of Rhode Island
1762-1763
1765-1767
Thomas Gates Governor of Québec
1763-1764
Robert Farmar Acting / Governor of West Florida
1763-1764
Lieutenant General William Keppel Governor of Cuba
1763-1765
George Johnstone Governor of West Florida
1763-1767
Major General James Grant, Laird of Ballindalloch Junior Commander in BNA
Captured by French at Siege of Fort DuQuesne
Governor of Florida
Commander of Successful Attack on Cherokees
Governor of East Florida
Commander of 5th Brigade at Boston Siege
Commander of 4th Brigade at Long Island
Commander of 2nd Brigade at Philadelphia
Commander of Brigade at Monmouth
Commander of Capture of St Lucia
1757-1760
1758
1760
1761
1763-1771
1775
1777
1777
1778
1778
Major General Eyre Massey Junior Commander at the Capture of Fort Niagara
Junior Commander at the Surrender of Montréal
Junior Commander in Capture of Martinique and Cuba
Military Commander in Nova Scotia
1759
1760
1761-1762
1775-1777
William Franklin Governor of New Jersey
1763-1776
Alexander Brown Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1764-1766
Major General William Tryon Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina
Governor of North Carolina
Governor of New York
Commander of Successful Raids in New York and New England
1764
1765-1771
1771-1774
1777-1780
Paulus A. Irving Acting / Governor of Canada
1766
Benjamin Green Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1766
1771-1772
Michael Francklin Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1766
1767-1768
1772
Roger Hope Elletson Governor of Jamaica
1766-1767
William Hill Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1766-1767
Captain William Campbell, Baron Campbell, RN Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor of South Carolina
1766-1773
1773-1776
Charles Greville Montagu Governor of South Carolina
1766-1773
General Guy Carleton, KB, 1 Baron Dorchester [7]

Junior Commander at Capture of Fort Louisbourg
Junior Commander at the Battle of Québec
Lieutenant Governor of Québec
Governor of Canada[8]
Governor of Québec

Commander in Québec & Defeated Generals Montgomery & Arnold
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Governor General of British North America
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada

1758
1759
1766-1768
1768-1778
1768-1778
1786-1796
1775-1776

1782-1783
1791-1791
1791-1796
William Pitkin Governor of Connecticut
1766-1769
Montforte Browne Acting / Governor of West Florida
1767-1769
Roderick Gwynne Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1767-1769
Sir William Trelawny Governor of Jamaica
1767-1772
Josias Lyndon Governor of Rhode Island
1768-1769
Norborne Berkeley, 4 Baron de Botetourt Governor of Virginia
1768-1770
John Eliot Governor of West Florida
1769
Elias Durnford Acting / Governor of West Florida
1769-1770
Robert William Stewart Acting / Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1769-1771
Vice Admiral The Honourable John Byron Commander-in-chief of the West Indies Station
Commander of the Attack of Comte d'Estaing at the Battle of Grenada
1769-1771
1779
Joseph Wanton Governor of Rhode Island
1769-1775
Sir Robert Eden, 1 Baronet of Maryland Governor of Maryland
1769-1776
Jonathan Trumbull Governor of Connecticut
1769-1784
Captain Walter Patterson, RN Governor of St John's Island (Prince Edward Island)
1769-1786
William Nelson Acting / Governor of Virginia
1770-1771
John Murray, IV Earl of Dunmore Governor of New York
Governor of Virginia
1770-1774
1771-1776
Hector C. Cramahé Acting / Governor of Canada
1770-1774
Peter Chester Governor of West Florida
1770-1781
James Hasell Acting / Governor of North Carolina
1771
John Moultrie Governor of East Florida
1771-1774
Henry Hanford Lord Proprietary of Maryland
1771-1776
Josiah Martin[9] Governor of North Carolina
1771-1776
William Young Acting / Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1771-1777
John Dalling Governor of Jamaica
1772-1774
1777-1781
Francis Legge Governor of Nova Scotia
1773-1776
Lieutenant General Hugh Percy, 2 Duke of Northumberland[10] Commander of the Relief at the Battle of Lexington
Commander of a Division at the Battle of Long Island
Commander at the Capture of Fort Washington
Third in Command of the British Army in America

1774
1776

1776
1777

Richard Lee Acting / Governor of Maryland
1774
1776-1777
Sir Basil Keith Governor of Jamaica
1774-1777
Patrick Tonyn Governor of East Florida
1774-1783
Major General Richard Prescott Captured in escape from Montréal to Québec
Subordinate Commander at Rhode Island
Commander at Rhode Island
Evacuated Rhode Island Garrison to New York
1775
1776-1779
1779
1778
Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, KB Subordinate Commander at the Attack of Bunker Hill
Commander of the Attack at Charleston
Subordinate Commander of the Capture of New York
Commander of the Occupation of Newport
Commander of the Capture of Forts Clinton & Montgomery
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1775
1776
1776
1776
1777
1778-1782
Major General Thomas Clarke Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution 1775-1777

ENDNOTES

1             I am indebted for much of the data to Index of Colonies and Possessions, at http://www.worldstatesmen.org/#U, the data there are quite specific, well organised, accurate, and very helpful. I also found individual Wikipedia state sites to be helpful. For the confusing Carolinas I also used http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/hp/colonial/Bookshelf/countie/countapp2.htm. Also see Frank McLynn, 1759, the Year Britain Became Master of the World; David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing; A short biography of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1729-1811 at, http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~boug2.html; General Montcalm Takes Oswego at, http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/en/page_233.asp; http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/Québechistory/encyclopedia/SevenYearsWar-FrenchandIndianWar-BattleofthePlainsofAbraham.htm, and Fred Anderson, Crucible of War. I have also used John K. Robertson and Don Hagist, Biographies of Crown Forces Generals Commanding Troop Units at, http://www.revwar75.com/crown/bio.htm.

2            Sir William Johnson’s supporter (and father of one of Johnson’s daughters-in-law), de Lancey recommended Johnson for the baronetcy created in 1756.

3            Also gained success in the capture of Fort Louisbourg. With Lieutenant Colonel (later Brigadier General) Robert Monckton, he designed the plan to expel 8,000 Acadians in 1754.

4            The term British North America presumably was created to help unify the British colonies in the war against France, although the term did not come into widespread use for nearly a century.

5            Monckton bears much responsibility for transporting the Acadians to Louisiana.

6           Apparently lazy and incompetent as demonstrated in his failed attack of Fort Carillon on Lake George in July 1758. He gave General Montcalm time to prepare his defences by taking two days to move two miles (against little opposition), did not conduct a personal reconnaisance of his intended target, did not use his artillery, did not pursue his initial attack when his still outnumbered the French, and did not even visit the battlefield; his men called him granny.

7           For a matter of hours the (then) American Brigadier General Benedict Arnold acted as Military Governor 31 Dec 1775 – 1776, (in the lower part of Québec City).

8           The American General Richard Montgomery occupied Montréal (November 1775-1776). He advised the passing of the Québec Act in 1774 and administered it so as to support the Roman Catholic Church and to retain French civil law. He repelled the American invasion of 1775-76, but he was criticized for his slow pursuit of the retreating invaders. He resigned after quarrels with his councillors, especially Chief Justice Peter Livius, leaving July 1778. In 1782-83 he was Commander-in-Chief at New York, which he refused to evacuate until the Loyalist refugees had been sent to safety, and he urged their reception in Québec and Nova Scotia. He unsuccessfully proposed while in England a single governor general for BNA. He was commissioned again as governor at Québec on 12 September 1791, but did not arrive in Lower Canada until 24 September 1793. Anxious to encourage commerce with the American West, he interpreted the imperial ban on American imports to apply only to seaports. He opposed the division of the Province of Québec into Upper and Lower Canada and the elected assemblies provided for by the Constitutional Act 1791, but advised the retention of Montréal in the lower province. Expecting war with the US just before the signing of Jay's Treaty in 1794, he made an inflammatory speech to natives and ordered the reoccupation of Fort Miamis (Maumee, Ohio). Given a gentle reprimand, he asked leave to resign on 4 September 1794 and was granted it July 1795. He left the province on 9 July 1796.

9         Josiah Martin claimed to govern in North Carolina until the war was officially over in 1784, however, in 1776 he left the Carolinas and was promptly replaced by the American Cornelius Harnett.

10      See Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Percy,_2nd_Duke_of_Northumberland. Born Hugh Smithson, he changed his name in 1750 by act of parliament. He was styled Earl Percy in 1766 and acceded to the dukedom in 1786. After gaining considerable military experience he was sent to Boston in 1774 as an acting Brigadier General. He did not agree with General Howe's command decisions and left the army in 1777.

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