BRITISH COMMANDERS IN BNA: 1776-

Introduction

The American colonies revolution changed Britain's military posture in North America. In October 1775 Lieutenant General William Howe, KB, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in America. Howe had already requested more troops and on 29 June 1776, the first of 23,000 additional British regulars and 10,000 German troops arrived. General Howe was also joined by his brother Vice Admiral Richard Howe and 70 British war ships. A 27 August 1776 army report gave the total manpower as 31,625 officers and men. On 8 January 1777 there was a total of 25,253 in New York and nearby Rhode Island.[1]

The British were hard-pressed during the 1770s and were significantly distracted away from the the rebellious colonials in America by French and Spanish attacks in the Caribbean. After losing America during the Revolution and the formal 1783 Treaty of Paris, Britain continued to follow up her colonial interests in North America in 1784. The British still controlled an enormous empire in the Americas. The following table identifies many of their leaders.[2] Dates indicate appointment or service. I have not included all personalities, but enough to indicate national colonial interest. Colonies were used as pawns to help make peace at the end of various conflicts, but the implied sovereign-ownership is accurate for the specific periods indicated.

After 1783, British focus shifted back to Québec and the remaining colonies in North America, and the generic term ‘British North America’ (BNA) was coined. (The term British West Indies (BWI) was used to define the Caribbean colonies.) Since Canada was not created formally until 1867, initial Canadian colonial history is focused in Québec. I have arbitrarily stopped after the 1867 year of Canadian interest.

The names are listed chronologically. Appointments are shown for the years only: note that titles changed over time. The most senior ranks are shown for the period of service - despite later promotions. I have not included all colonial British incumbents for sake of data bulk: but I have included most Canadian and American appointees, plus those in incidental Carribean and Central and South American positions. I have shown significant actions for some individuals.

Name

Appointment

Dates

Major General John Thomas Military Commander in Canada during the American Revolution
1776
Major General William Alexander Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution
1776
Major General John (Gentleman Johnny) Burgoyne, Kt

Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution
Commander and Surrendered at the Battles of Saratoga[3]
Prisoner of War

1776-1777
1777
1777-1778
Vice Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot Governor of Nova Scotia
Commander of the North American Station
Commander at the Battle of the Cape
1776-1778
1779-1781
1781
Vice Admiral Richard Howe, KG, 4 Viscount Howe Commander of the North American Station
British Peace Commissioner
1776-1778
1776-1778
Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, II Earl Cornwallis Commander of Landing at Long Island
Commander of the Assault at Kip's Bay
Commander of the Reserve Corps
Defeated by Washington at the Battle of Princeton
Captured Philadelphia
Commander of the American Southern Theatre
Defeated by Gates at the Battle of Camden
Defeated by Washington at the Battle of Yorktown
1776
1776
1776-1779
1777
1777
1780-1781
1780
1781
Major General Edward Mathew Commander of the Brigade of Guards during the American Revolution
Commanded the Assault Landing at Kip's Bay
Subordinate Commander at the Capture of Fort Washington
Commander-in-Chief of the West Indies
1776-1780
1776
1776
1782
Brigadier General Samuel Cleaveland, RA Commander of the Royal Artillery during the American Revolution 1776-1781
Major General William Phillips, RA Commander at St Johns', Newfoundland
Second in Command for Burgoyne's Expedition
Subordinate Commander at the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
Surrendered at Saratoga
Prisoner of War
1776
1777
1777
1777
1777-1780
Major General Robert Pigot Commander of 2nd Brigade at Bunker Hill
Commander of 3rd Brigade at the Siege of Boston
Commander of 2nd Brigade at Long Island
Commander of Rhode Island
1775
1776
1776
1777-1779
Brigadier General Thomas Stirling of Ardoch Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution
Commander of a Brigade at Springfield New Jersey
1776-1780
1780
Brigadier General James Agnew (killed at the Battle of Germantown 1777) Junior Commander during the American Revolution
Commander of 2nd Brigade during the American Revolution
Commander of 4th Brigade during the American Revolution
1776
1776-1777
1777
Major General Daniel Jones Subordinate Commander during the American Revolution 1776-1777
Major General Valentine Jones Commander of 3rd Brigade during the American Revolution
Staff Officer of Canada Headquarters BNA
Governor of New York
1776-1777
1777
1778
Brigadier General General Francis Smith Commander of Raid on Lexington and Concord
Commander of 5th Brigade at Long Island
Commander of a Brigade at Rhode Island
1775
1776-1778
1778
Major General William Erskine, KB, 2 Bt, QMG Commander of 7th Brigade during the American Revolution
Subordinate Commander on Danbury Raid & at Philadelphia
Appointed Quartermaster-General of Army in America
Commanded Eastern District of Long Island
1776-1779
1777
1778
1778-1779
Major General Cortland Skinner (Militia) Successfully Raised six militia battalions as the New Jersey Volunteers Regiment
Appointed Major General of Militia
A / Commander of Staten Island
Commander of Paulus Hook
1776
1777
1778-1782
1782
Brigadier General Alexander Leslie Commander of the Light Infantry Brigade during the American Revolution
1776-1779
Major General James Paterson Adjutant General in America
Commanded the Capture of Stony Point
Subordinate Commander at Siege of Charlestown
Commanded Staten Island Garrison
1776-1779
1779
1780
1780-1783
Major General James Pattison, RA

Subordinate Artillery Commander during the American Revolution
Subordinate Commander at the Capture of Stony Point

1776-1780
1779
Brigadier General James Hamilton Commander of 1st Brigade in Burgoyne's Campaign
Commander at Fort Ticonderoga
Commander of 1st Brigade at the Battle of Freeman's Farm
1777
1777
1777
Major General John Vaughan Subordinate Commander on Charleston Expedition
Commander of Grenadiers at the Battle of Long Island
Commander of 1st Brigade in Capture of Fort Montgomery
Captured Verplanck's Point
Commander of the Leeward Islands
Captured St Eustatius
1776
1776
1777
1779
1779-1782
1782
Brigadier General Henry Powell Commander of 2nd Brigade in Burgoyne's Campaign
Commander at Fort Ticonderoga
1777
1777
Brigadier General Charles O'Hara Junior Commander during the American Revolution
Commander of the Brigade of Guards during the American Revolution
Formally Surrendered at Yorktown for General Cornwallis
1778-1780
1780-1783
1781
Peter Campbell Acting / Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1777-1779
Sir Richard Hughes Governor of Nova Scotia
1778
Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Haldimand Governor of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Québec
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1778-1786
1778-1786
1778-1786
John Graham Acting / Lieutenant Governor of Tobago
1779-1781
Major General George Garth Commander Brigade Connecticut Coast Raid
Captured by French
1779
1779
Brigadier General James Patterson Subordinate Commander in South Carolina 1780
Major General Edward Matthews Subordinate Commander
1781
Rear Admiral Sir Samuel Hood Commander Escort Fleet
1781
Vice Admiral, Sir Samuel Graves Commander American Station Fleet
1781
Captain Sir Andrew Snape Hamond, 1 Baronet of Holly Grove, RN Governor of Nova Scotia
1781-1782
Archibald Campbell Governor of Jamaica
1781-1784
Colonel John Parr (died 25 November 1791 at Halifax) Governor of Nova Scotia
1782-1783
1786-1791
Andrew Elliott Acting / Military governor of New York
1783
Colonel Edmund Fanning Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor of St John's Island (Prince Edward Island)
Governor of Prince Edward Island
1783-1786
1786-1799
1799- 1804
Colonel Thomas Carleton Captain General of New Brunswick
Governor in Chief of New Brunswick
Governor of New Brunswick

1784-1786
1784-1786
1786-1817

Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Frederick Wallet des Barres Lieutenant Governor of Cape Breton Island
Governor of Prince Edward Island
1784- 1787
1804-1812
Alured Clarke Governor of Jamaica
1784-1790
Henry Hamilton Acting / Governor of Canada
Acting / Governor of Canada
1785-1786
1791-1793
Rear Admiral John Elliott Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1786-1789
Vice Admiral Mark Milbanke Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1789-1792
Thomas Howard, III Earl of Effingham Governor of Jamaica
1790-1791
Richard Bulkeley Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1791-1792
Sir Adam Williamson Governor of Jamaica
1791-1795
Lieutenant Colonel John Graves Simcoe Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada[4]
1791-1796
Vice Admiral Sir Richard King Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1792-1794
Sir John Wentworth Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1792-1808
George Poyntz Ricketts Governor of Tobago
1793-1795
Lieutenant General Sir Robert Prescott, Baronet Governor of Martinique
Governor General of British North America
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Commander of British Forces in BNA
1794
1796-1807
1796-1799
1796-1807
John Vaughan Governor of Martinique
1794-1795
Vice Admiral Sir James Wallace Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1794-1797
Field Marshal, HRH Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, KG, PC, KP, GCB, GCH Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1794-1799
Brigadier General Thomas Picton Subordinate Commander at Capture of Saint Lucia & St Vincent
Acting / Governor of Tobago
Subordinate Commander at Capture of Trinidad
Governor of Trinidad
1795
1796
1797
1797-1803
Sir Robert Shore Milnes Governor of Martinique
Acting / Governor of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
1795-1796
1799-1805
1799-1805
Major General Alexander Lindsay, VI Earl of Balcares Governor of Jamaica
1795-1801
Peter Russell Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1796-1799
William Keppel Governor of Martinique
1796-1802
Vice Admiral William Waldegrave Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1797-1800
Captain Edward Hamilton, RN Commander of Aruba
1799
Lieutenant General Peter Hunter Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Commander of British Forces in the Canadas
1799-1805
Captain Henry Anderson, RN Commander of Aruba
1800
Vice Admiral Charles Morice Pole Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1800-1801
William Carlyon Hughes Governor of Curaçao
1801
1802-1803
Arthur Whetham Governor of Curaçao
1801-1802
Sir George Nugent Governor of Jamaica
1801-1806
Sir Alexander Croke, Kt Vice Admiralty High Court Judge for All America
Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1801-1815
1808-1809
1811
Vice Admiral James Gambier Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1802-1804
Vice Admiral Sir Erasmus Gower Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1804-1807
Sir Thomas Dunn Governor General of British North America
Acting / Governor of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Acting / Governor of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
1805-1807
1805-1807
1805-1807
1811
1811
Alexander Grant Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1805-1806
Major General Sir Eyre Coote, GCB Governor of Jamaica
1806-1808
William Henry Bolton Governor of Curaçao
1807
Micaiah Malbon Governor of Curaçao
1807-1808
Admiral John Holloway Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1807-1810
Major Sir Francis Gore Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1806-1811
1815-1817
General Sir James Henry Craig Governor General of the Canadas
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
1807-1811
1807-1811
Sir James Cockburn Governor of Curaçao
1808-1809
Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost, Baronet Governor of Nova Scotia
Governor General of British North America
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Commander of Attack and Battle of Sackett's Harbor
Governor-in-Chief of Lower Canada
1808-1811
1811-1815
1811-1815
1814
1811-1815
William Montague, 5 Duke of Manchester Governor of Jamaica
1808-1811
1813-1821
George Beckwith Governor of Martinique
1809
John Thomas Layard Governor of Curaçao
1809-1811
John Broderick Governor of Martinique
1809-1812
Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1810-1812
Major General Sir Isaac Brock, KB, (killed 13 Oct 1812, at Queenston Heights) Commander-in-Chief of Upper Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Commander at Capture of Detroit
1810-1812
1811-1812
1812
John Hodgson Governor of Curaçao
1811-1814
Lieutenant General Sir John Coape Sherbrooke Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Commander of the Capture of Fort Castine (Maine)
Governor General of British North America
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
1811-1816
1814
1816
1816-1818
Edward Morrison Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1811-1813
Major General Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe, Baronet of Boston Commander at the Battle of Queenston Heights
Commander-in-Chief of Upper Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1812
1812-1813
1812-1813
Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres Lieutenant Governor of Cape Breton Island
Governor of Prince Edward Island
1784- 1787
1804-1812
Charles Wale Governor of Martinique
1812-1814
Charles Douglas Smith Governor of Prince Edward Island
1812-1824
Major General Francis de Rottenburg, Baron de Rottenburg Commander in Lower Canada
Commander-in-Chief of Upper Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1812
1813
1813
Lieutenant General Sir Gordon Drummond Commander-in-Chief of Upper Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Acting / Governor General of British North America
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
1813-1814
1813-1814
1815-1816
1815-1816
Vice Admiral Sir Richard Goodwin Keats Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1813-1816
Major General Robert Ross, (killed 12 September 1814, at Baltimore) Commander of the Attacks on Washington and Baltimore
1814
Major General Sir Frederick Philipse Robinson, GCB Subordinate Commander at the Battle of Plattsburgh
Provisional Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Governor of Tobago
1814
1815
1816-1828
John Le Couteur Governor of Curaçao
1814-1816
Major General Sir George Arthur, 1 Baronet of Upper Canada, KCH, PC Lieutenant Governor of British Honduras
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1814-1822
1838-1841
Major General Sir George Murray, GCB Provisional Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1815
George Stracey Smith Governor of Nova Scotia
1816
John Wilson Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Acting / Governor General of British North America
1816
1816
Admiral Francis Pickmore Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1816-1818
General George Ramsay, IX Earl of Dalhousie Governor of Nova Scotia
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Governor General of British North America
Governor of Canada
1816-1820
1819-1828
1820-1828
1820-1831
Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Smith Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1817-1818
Major General George Stracey Smyth Governor of New Brunswick
1817-1823
John Bowker Acting / Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland
1818
Charles Lennox, 4 Duke of Richmond and Lennox Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Governor General of British North America
1818-1819
1818-1820
Vice Admiral Sir Charles Hamilton, 1 Baronet of The Mount Governor of Newfoundland
1818-1823
Major General Sir Peregrine Maitland, KCB, GCB Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Governor of Nova Scotia
1818-1828
1828-1834
Sir James Kempt Governor of Nova Scotia
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Acting / Governor General of British North America
1820-1828
1828-1830
1828-1830
John Ready Governor of Prince Edward Island
1824-1831
Major General Sir Howard Douglas Governor of New Brunswick
1824-1831
Captain Sir Thomas John Cochrane, RN Governor of Newfoundland
1825-1834
Sir John Keane Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1827-1829
Thomas N Jeffrey Governor of Nova Scotia
1828
1834
Major General Sir John Colborne, 1 Baron Seaton, GCB, GCMG, GCH Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
Acting / Governor General of British North America
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada

1828-1836
1836-1838
1837-1839
1838
1839

Somerset Lowry-Corry, II Earl of Belmore Governor of Jamaica
1829-1832
General Matthew Whitworth-Aylmer, 5 Baron Aylmer, GCB Governor General of British North America
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1830-1835
1830-1835
1830-1835
Sir Murray Maxwell Acting / Governor of Prince Edward Island
1831
Sir Aretas William Young Governor of Prince Edward Island
1831-1835
Major General Sir Archibald Campbell Governor of New Brunswick
1831-1837
George Cuthbert Governor of Jamaica
1832
1834
Howe Peter Browne, 2 Marquess of Sligo Governor of Jamaica
1834-1836
Major General Sir Colin Campbell, KCB Governor of Nova Scotia
1834-1841
Captain Henry Prescott, RN Governor of Newfoundland
1834-1841
George Wright Acting / Governor of Prince Edward Island
1835-1836
1841
Archibald Acheson, II Earl Gosford, Baron Worlingham, GCB Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Governor General of British North America
1835-1838
1835-1837
Major General Sir John Harvey Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island
Governor of New Brunswick
Governor of Newfoundland
Governor of Nova Scotia
1836-1837
1837-1841
1841-1846
1846-1852
Major Sir Francis Bond Head, KCH, PC Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
1836-1838
Sir Lionel Smith Governor of Jamaica
1836-1839
Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy Governor of Prince Edward Island
1837-1841
John George Lambton, 1 Earl of Durham Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Governor General of BNA
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Governor in Chief of BNA
1838-1839
1838-1839
1838-1839
1838-1839
Charles Edward Poulett Thomson, 1 Baron Sydenham Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada[5]
Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada
Governor General of BNA
1839-1841
1839-1841
1839-1841
1839-1841
Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe Governor of Jamaica
1839-1842
Lucius Bentinck Cary, 10 Viscount Falkland Governor of Nova Scotia
1840-1846
Major General John Clitherow Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
1841
1841
Sir Richards Downes Jackson Acting / Governor General of the Province of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
1841-1842
1841-1842
1841-1842
Sir Henry Vere Huntley Governor of Prince Edward Island
1841-1847
Sir William MacBean George Colebrooke Governor of New Brunswick
1841-1848
Sir Charles Bagot, GCB Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Governor General of BNA
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
1842-1843
1842-1843
1842-1843
1842-1843
James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, KT, GCB, KSI, PC Governor of Jamaica
Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
Governor General of BNA
1842-1846
1847-1854
1847-1854
1847-1854
1847-1854
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, 1 Baron Metcalfe of Fernhill Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Governor General of BNA
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
1843-1845
1843-1845
1843-1845
1843-1845
General Charles Murray Cathcart, II Earl of Cathcart, GCB Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Governor General of BNA
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1845-1847
1845-1847
1845-1847
1845-1847
1846-1849
Sir Jeremiah Dickson Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1846
George Henry Frederick Berkeley Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1846-1847
Ker Baillie Hamilton Lieutenant Governor of Grenada
Acting / Governor of Barbados and the Windward Islands
Governor of Newfoundland
Governor of Antigua and the Leeward Islands
1846-1851
1851
1852-1855
1855-1867
Sir Donald Campbell Governor of Prince Edward Island
1847-1850
Captain Sir Charles Henry Darling Lieutenant Governor of St Lucia
Governor of Newfoundland
Governor of Jamaica
Captain-in-Chief of Jamaica
1847-1851
1855-1857
1857-1863
1857-1863
Colonel Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant Governor of Newfoundland
Governor of Nova Scotia
1847-1852
1852-1858
Sir Charles Edward Grey Governor of Jamaica
1847-1853
Sir Edmund Walker Head, 8 Baronet of The Hermitage, KCB Governor of New Brunswick
Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
Governor General of BNA
1848-1854
1854-1861
1854-1861
1854-1861
1854-1861
Field Marshal Sir William Rowan, GCB Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1849-1855
Ambrose Lane Acting / Governor of Prince Edward Island
1850-1851
Sir Alexander Bannerman Governor of Prince Edward Island
Governor of the Bahamas
Governor of Newfoundland
1851-1854
1854-1857
1857-1864
John Bazalgette Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia
1852
Sir Dominick Daly Governor of Prince Edward Island
1854-1859
Sir John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton Governor of New Brunswick
1854-1861
Edward Wells Bell Acting / Governor of Jamaica
1856-1857
George Augustus Constantine Phipps, 2nd Marquess of Normanby, Earl of Mulgrave, GCB, GCMG, PC Governor of Nova Scotia
1858-1863
Charles Young Acting / Governor of Prince Edward Island
1859
George Dundas Governor of Prince Edward Island
1859-1868
Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon Governor of New Brunswick
1861-1866
Charles Stanley Monck, 4 Viscount Monck of Ballytrammon, GCMG, PC Governor in Chief of the Province of Canada
Governor General of BNA
Governor General of Canada
Lieutenant Governor of Canada East
Lieutenant Governor of Canada West
1861-1867
1861-1867
1867-1868
1861-1868
1861-1868

Edward John Eyre Governor of Jamaica
1862-1865
Charles Hastings Doyle Acting / Governor of Nova Scotia

1863-1864
1865

Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell Governor of Nova Scotia
1864-1865
Sir Anthony Musgrave, KCMG Governor of Newfoundland
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia
Governor of Jamaica
1864-1869
1869-1871
1877-1883
Sir Henry Knight Storks Governor of Jamaica
1865-1866
General Sir Fenwick Williams, Bt, GCB Governor of Nova Scotia
Commander-in-Chief of BNA
1865-1867
1865-1867
Sir John Peter Grant Governor of Jamaica
1866-1874
Major General Sir Henry William Stisted, KCB Lieutenant Governor of Ontario
1867-1868
Sir Robert Hodgson Acting / Governor of Prince Edward Island
Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island
1868-1870
1874-1879
William Cleaver Francis Robinson, CMG Governor of Prince Edward Island
Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island
1870-1873
1873-1874

ENDNOTES

1             David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing, pps. 31-33, 383.

2            I am indebted for much of the data to Index of Colonies and Possessions, at http://www.worldstatesmen.org/#U, the data there are quite specific, well organised, accurate, and very helpful. I also found individual Wikipedia state sites to be helpful. For the confusing Carolinas I also used http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/hp/colonial/Bookshelf/countie/countapp2.htm. Also see Frank McLynn, 1759, the Year Britain Became Master of the World; David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing; http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~boug2.html, http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/fr/page_233.asp, http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/SevenYearsWar-FrenchandIndianWar-BattleofthePlainsofAbraham.htm, and Fred Anderson, Crucible of War. I have also used John K. Robertson and Don Hagist, Biographies of Crown Forces Generals Commanding Troop Units at, http://www.revwar75.com/crown/bio.htm.

3           General Burgoyne and his men surrendered on 17 October 1777, which was supposed to ensure their honourable release back to Britain. The colonial Major General Horatio Gates demanded that General Burgoyne unconditionally surrender, which General Burgoyne refused: the two sides then worked out a face-saving methodology. In the event, the Continental Congress over-ruled General Gates, the local commander, and the British were confined as prisoners for the duration of the war.

4           On 24 Aug 1791, Québec was divided into Lower Canada (Québec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) (effective 26 Dec 1791). Simcoe founded the town of York (Muddy York), now Toronto in 1793. Toronto had previously been an Indian village and the French had built a Fort Toronto on the site.

5           On 10 Feb 1841 the Union Act was proclaimed creating the United Province of Canada: a union of Ontario (as Canada West) and Québec (as Canada East).

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