EUROPEAN FORTIFICATIONS BUILT IN NORTH AMERICA: 1600-1699

I have used a geographical definition and fudged this area to include the Caribbean, Central America, and northern South America. The names of many of these forts are a desperate confusion and I have included all those names for a structure that I have been able to collect.[1] I have further ignored minor site adjustments in various re-buildings of fortifications. A military fort was usually built for strategic reasons in some specified area and even if ownership and nationality changed the strategic purpose was often recognised and adopted.

Search techniques for this database might use the following keys: name, dates, nationality, or battles. No doubt there are errors here, however with such large numbers that is probably inevitable and are only of detail.

European Fortifications Built in America: 1600-1699

Names & Location

Construction & Events

Fort Ninigret (Fort Neck Lot), Rhode Island Dutch; c1600, Built fort with bastions; c1650, Used by the Niantic Indians against settlers and Pequot Indians.
Castillo De San Salvador De La Punta, Cuba Spanish; 1600, Built directly across from El Morro in stone to protect Havana with a heavy chain stretched across the harbour mouth; 6 June-13 August 1762, Siege and Captured by British George Keppel Earl of Albemarle.
Fort Gosnold, Massachusetts English; c1602

Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal, Annapolis), Nova Scotia (Acadia)

Commanders: 1604, Captain General Pierre du Gast Sieur De Monts, Samuel de Champlain, Jean de Biencourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt, 1701, Joseph de St Ovide, Monbeton de Brouillan; 1710, Gouveneur Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, Gouveneur-lieutenant Bonaventure, Baron Bernard-Anselme d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Governor Samuel Vetch, 1711, Lieutenant-governor Sir Charles Hobby, 1712, Lieutenant-governor Thomas Caulfeild, 1717, Governor Colonel Richard Philipps, 1711, Acting Governor Captain Mascarene, 1731-1739, Governor Lieutenant Colonel Lawrence Armstrong, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Lawrence

French; 1604, Built earth fort and 300-man garrison; July 1613, Samuel Argall sailed from Virginia with 60 men and 14 cannons and destroyed and burned the fortified settlements of Saint Sauveur and Port-Royal in Acadia; 1704, Failed English attack by Colonel John March; 1707, Failed British attack by Colonel John March with 22 ships 1,600 men and 225 guns; c15-30 September 1710, Colonel Francis Nicholson and Colonel Samuel Vetch besieged and captured the town with 55 ships 2,000 men and about 280 guns; 6 October 1710, British occupied with 450-man garrison called Annapolis Royal; 1711, Rebuilt earth fort with log palisades; 10 June 1711, Garrison fought Indians and French in lost (70 casualties) Battle of Bloody Creek; c15 June 1711, Failed Indian and French attack; 5 July-25 October 1744, Failed French and Indian attack; 1755, British Admiral Cornwallis and Governor Lieutenant Colonel Charles Lawrence transported 6,800 Acadians - many of whom died prior to reaching sanctuary.
Norway House, Manitoba English; 1604-1605, HBC post with 1840-1856 additions.
Fort La Habitation, Nova Scotia French; 1605, Moved fur-trading from St Croix Island; 1613, Attacked and burned by English; 1614, Rebuilt; 1623, Attacked and burned by English; 1636, Moved to Annapolis Royal.

Stage Harbour (Penobscot), Massachusetts

Commander: Captain Weymouth

French; 1606, Temporary fortified camp using 'stage' racks to dry cod fish; 1606, Attacked by Indians.
Fort Saint George, Maine English: 1607.

Fort James (James' Citie Fort, Jamestown Fort), Virginia

Commander: Sir Christopher Newport

English; 1607, Built 12' high log fort with guns and palisades to protect first English settlement in America capital of colonial Virginia; 1607, Attacked by Indians; 1614, two blockhouses added outside fort.

Place-Royale (La Habitation, Québec City), Québec

Commander: Samuel de Champlain

French; 1608, Built fortified post resembling a mediaeval castle to protect fur trade; 1623, Rebuilt; 1629, Captured by Kirke brothers; 1632, Returned to French; 1682, Rebuilt in stone; 1690, Failed attack by Admiral Phipps; 1759, Destroyed in British attack; 1761, Rebuilt.

Fort Smith (New Fort), Virginia

Commander: Captain John Smith

English

Fort West, Virginia

Commander: Captain Francis West

English; 1637, Trading post added to fort; 1644, Attacked by Indians.

Presidio San Francisco de Coahuila (Presidio Monclova), Texas

Commanders: 1585, Luis de Carvajal, Capitans 24 March 1609, Pedro de Velada, 1675, Fernando del Bosque, 14 October 1687

Spanish; 1609, Built fort with 22 soldiers on site of failed 1585 Nuevo Almadén settlement; 1618, Presidio abandoned; 1644, Reinforced by 75 men; 1675, Garrison 10 men; 20 April 1678, Garrison 20 men; 1775, Garrison 51 men,

Fort Algernourne (Point Comfort, Fort George, Old Point Comfort, Fort Monroe), Virginia

Commanders: 1630, Colonel Samuel Mathews

English; 1609, Built as a triangular log stockade on the James River for seven guns and 50 people as defence against Spaniards; 1612, Destroyed by Fire; 1630-1632, Rebuilt as Fort Point Comfort; 1667, Destroyed by storm; 1727-1730, Rebuilt in brick as Fort George; 1749, Destroyed by storm; 1819-1834, Fort Monroe built with seven forts on 63 acres as coastal defence.
Fort San Juan de la Cruz (Feurte El Cañuelo), Puerto Rico Spanish; 1610, Built of wood to cover harbour entrance with guns; 1625, Attacked and burned by Dutch; c1673, Rebuilt with raised stone walls and square open gun platform.

Presidio La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco (Presidio de Exaltación de la Cruz del Nuevo México, Presidio of Santa Fe), New Mexico

Commanders: c1680, Captain General, Don Antonio Otermin, Captain General, 1691, Don Diego de Vargas Zapata y Luján, Ponce de Léon, Marqués de la Nava de Brazinas, 1710, Capitan Alferez Cristobal de la Serna

Spanish; 1610, Built an adobe fort as capital of New Mexico; 1680, 250 man Garrison; 14-21 August 1680, Taos Pueblo Indian revolt siege and Captured fort; 14 September 1691, Spanish re-Captured and occupy fort; 1692, Rebuilt called Presidio de Exaltación de la Cruz del Nuevo México; 28 December 1693, Pueblo Indian attack; 1700-1720, Garrison fought Comanches; 1775, garrison 80 men.

Fort Charles, Virginia

Commander: Captain John Flood

English; 1610, Stockade on Hampton Creek paired on opposite bank.

Fort Henry, Virginia

Commander: Captain John Flood

English; 1610, Stockade on Hampton Creek paired on opposite bank.
La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco (Presidio de Exaltación de la Cruz del Nuevo México, Presidio of New Mexico), New Mexico Spanish; 1610, Built to be capital of Nueva México and protect settlers from Pueblo Indians; 1680, Captured and occupied by Pueblo Indians during the Pueblo Revolt; 1692, Recaptured by Spanish rebuilt and called Presidio de Exaltación de la Cruz del Nuevo México.

Fort Citie Of Henricus, Virginia

Commander: Sir Thomas Dale

English; 1611, Built as large palisaded pentagonal settlement with five watchtowers and dry moat; 1622, Attacked by Indians and destroyed.
Fort Sainte Helene (Le Vieux-Fort), Québec French; 1611, Built as log fort; c1650, Rebuilt; 1760, Occupied by British; 1775, Attacked and occupied by Americans; 1776, Occupied by British; 1872, Abandoned.
Fort King's Castle, Bermuda English; 1612, Stone fortification built by Governor Richard Moore; 1614, Spanish attack defeated.
Fort Cunningham, Bermuda English; 1612, Established by Governor Richard Moore who had gun platforms cut into the rock overlooking the entrance channel; 1616, Governor Daniel Tucker added an additional gun battery;1619-1722, Sub-forts Paget and Smith's were added with major engineering works for the gun-platforms; 1746, Paget Fort used to house prisoners; 1791, Re-built; 1823-1875, Fort Cunningham replaced the older Paget Island Fort.
Fort Gates, Bermuda English; 1612-1615, Built stone fort with guns and garrison to defend against Spain, France, and pirates.
Fort Warwick Castle (Fort William), Bermuda English; 1612, Built raised stone fort with 11 guns recovered from ship-wreck with a stone keep dry-moat and garrison to defend harbour against Spain, France, and pirates;
Fort George, Bermuda English; 1612, Built raised stone fort with 11 guns recovered from ship-wreck with a stone keep and garrison to defend harbour against Spain, France, and pirates.
Fort Manhattes, New York Dutch; 1614, Built on the Hudson River for protection from Indians.
Fort Nassau (Fort Oranje, Fort Orange, Fort Frederick, Fort Albany), New York, Dutch; 1614, Built on Castle Island at Albany; 1617, Fort washed out but rebuilt as Fort Oranje; 1624, rebuilt as moated trading fort; 24 September 1664, Surrendered to English renamed Fort Albany with 120' x 70' stockade and 23 guns; 1673-1674, Occupied by Dutch renamed Fort Nassau, 1675, Captured by English and abandoned but the town built 10' palisade; 1702-1738, Re-built as masonry fort named Fort Frederick was 200' square four bastions two brick two-story barracks for 80 men and 10 guns mostly 32-pounders; c1783, Occupied by Americans; 1789, Abandoned.

Fort Pentagoet (Fort Castine, Fort Penobscot), Maine

Commanders: 1670, Jean Vincent d'Abbadie de St Castin

French; 1613, French Trading Post; 1629, Plymouth Pilgrims occupied and fortified; 1635, Captured and rebuilt by French as four-sided 60' square stone and earthwork with four bastions; 1654, Captured by English; 1670, Returned to French; 1674, Captured by Dutch; 1675, Returned to French; 1676, Captured by Dutch; 1676, Returned to French; 1688, Destroyed by English Sir Edmund ; c1690, Rebuilt by French; 1722, Destroyed by British; 1779, Rebuilt and occupied by British; 1779, Failed American attack; 1812, Occupied by Americans; 1814, Captured and occupied by British; 1815, Abandoned.

Fort Zeelandia (Fort Willoughby), Surinam, South America

Commanders: 1613, Dirck van Sanen, Nicolaas, 1644, Noailly, c1651, Lord Francis Willoughby

Dutch; Built palisaded trading post on Surinam River to defend Paramaribo; 1644, Captured by French who built wood fort; 1650, Occupied by English from Barbados who rebuilt; 27 February 1667, Captured by Dutch Admiral Abraham Crijssen and renamed Fort Zeelandia; 1667, Recaptured by English but restored to Dutch by Treaty of Breda which traded New York (Nieuw Amsterdam) for Surinam; c1680-c1750, Fortress rebuilt in ston with bastions and gun batteries and storehouse and barracks; 1712, Two attacks by French Capitaine Jacques Cassard and his pirates; 1790, Built civil prison; 1872, Fort used as jail and prison; 1994, Abandoned.
Fort Saint Catherine, Bermuda, West Indies English; 1614, Built walled stone fort with guns, buildings, and garrison to defend against Spain, France, and pirates; 1793, Rebuilt to include two additional batteries; 1814, Rebuilt; c1825, Added inner circular fort; 1865-1868, Rebuilt 25' thick concrete embrasures and casemates to rearm with 5 rifled 18 ton muzzle- loading cannons.
Fort Esopus, New York Dutch; 1615, Fortified trading post; 1658, Built at Kingston with palisade guardhouse and moat; 1659, Attacked by Indians; 1664, Surrendered to English.
Castillo de San Diego, Acapulco Mexico Spanish; 1615, A moated pentagon-shaped fortress with bastions at each corner protected from pirate attacks; 1784, Construction completed.

Fort Patuxet Landing, Massachusetts

Commander, Captain John Smith?

English; 23 December 1616, Indian Raid

Plymouth Fort, Massachusetts

Commander, Captain Miles Standish

English; 1620, Built 8' high palisade wall around settler cabins; 1622, Blockhouse and four guns added and palisade lengthened to 2,700'

Fort Saint-Louis, Québec

Commander: Samuel de Champlain

French; 1620, Built by Champlain to guard Québec City; 1623, Governor's residence; 1629, Captured by Kirke brothers; 1632, Returned to French; c1665, Re-used as fort; 1682, Rebuilt in stone; 1690, Failed attack by Admiral Phipps; 1759, Destroyed in British attack; 1761, Rebuilt.

Fort Ferryland (Avalon) , Newfoundland

Commander: 1621, Governor Captain Edward Wynne, 1638, Sir David Kirke

English; 1621, Built to protect colonists from the French; 1628, Captured by the Kirke brothers; 1629, Destroyed by French; 1638, Rebuilt; 1673, Destroyed by Dutch; 1694, Defeated French Attack; 1696, Attacked by French.
Wessagusset Fort, Massachusetts English; 1622, Built settlers' fort; 1622, Destroyed by Indians after a few months.
Fort New Amsterdam (Fort James), New York Dutch; 1624, Built after purchase from the Indians; 1628, Abandoned as colonists returned to the Netherlands; 1633, Re-occupied with new settlers under the Patroonship plan; 1664, 8 September Surrendered by Dutch to English and re-named Fort James.

The Castle (Fort Boykin, Fort at Warraskoyack, Roger Smith's Fort, Fort at Rock Wharf), Virginia

English; 1623, Built for protection against Indians and the Spanish.

Fort Saint Louis (Fort LaTour, Fort Lomeron, Frederick, Howe), New Brunswick

Commanders: 1632, Charles de St Étienne de la Tour, 1640, Françoise Marie Jacquelin de la Tour, 1641, Charles de St Étienne de la Tour

French; 1623, Built to defend Acadian fur trade at mouth of St John River; 1629, Attacked by British; 1630, Attacked by British; 1640, Attacked and destroyed by French competitor Charles de Menou d'Aulnay; c1645, Rebuilt; 1758, Captured and renamed Frederick by English in Seven Years' War; 1763, Rebuilt on the abandoned ruins and nearby as Fort Howe with a blockhouse; c1769, Expanded for 100 men, two blockhouses and eight guns; c1776, Destroyed by Americans; 1784, Rebuilt as an area military headquarters to protect the refugee loyalists who established the city of St John in the area; 1812-1815, Garrison manned; 1815, Abandoned; 1940, Canadian 8th Anti-Aircraft Battery placed a 3.7 inch gun.
Fort Nooten Eylandt, New York Dutch; 1624, Built on Governor's Island; 1625, Abandoned.

Fort Nassau, New Jersey

Commander: Captain Cornelius Jacobsen Mey

Dutch; June 1624, Captain Mey delivered the first settlers to New Netherland on Governors Island and they set about building a fort before the winter.
Fort St Croix, New York Dutch; 1625, Built stockade with gun at North Hoosick on river; c1635, Destroyed by Indians; c1750 Rebuilt by English to protect settlers during Seven Years' War.

Fort Amsterdam (Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James, Fort New York, Fort William Henry, Fort Anne, Fort George), New York

Commander: Governor Peter Stuyvesant, was military commander of a small Dutch West Indies Company army in Nieuw Nederlands.

Dutch; 1626, Built by Dutch West India Company at what grew to be Nieuw Amsterdam (now New York City) with four bastions and guns; 1653, Wall added including two stone blockhouses; 1655, Stuyvesant Captured New Sweden in Delaware; August 1664, Occupied and re-named Fort James by English; 1687-1673, Re-named Fort George; 1673-1674, Occupied by Dutch and re-named Fort Willem Hendrick; 1674, Re-occupied by English as Fort George; 1776, Attacked by Americans; 1790, Abandoned.
Fort Rosemar, Cape Breton Nova Scotia Scottish; 1629, Built of earth and logs with garrison of 15 men armed with harqubuses; 1629, Attacked and Captured by French.
Charles Fort (Fort Anne), Nova Scotia Scottish; 1629, Built of earth and logs; 1632, French Attacked called Fort Anne and occupied; 1636, Rebuilt as capital of Acadia (until 1710); 1690; Captured by English; 1697, Returned to French; 1702, Rebuilt and renamed settlement as Annapolis Royal; 1812, Blockhouse added; c1815, Abandoned.

Fort Oranje (Fort George), Saint Eustatius

Commanders: 1709, Isaac Lamont, 1737, Isaac Faesch, 1755, Jan de Windt, Ravene, 1781, Lieutenant Colonels Cockburne, Stafford,

French; 1629, Built; c1632, Abandoned; 1636, Dutch occupied and rebuilt and renamed Fort Oranje with two guns for protection from pirates; 1640, 16 x guns; July 1665, Captured with its 20 x guns by Sir Henry Morgan; 1667, Returned to Dutch; 1672, Captured by English; 1673, Attacked by Dutch and burned but rebuilt by English; 1678, Returned to Dutch; 1689, Rebuilt; 1689, Captured by French; 1685, Rebuilt added dry moat and palisade; 1690, Returned to Dutch; 25 November 1709, Captured by French and destroyed; c1711, Returned to Dutch; 1738, Rebuilt added dry moat; 1740, Cisterns repaired; 1741, Built new bridge and palisade; 1765, Two bastions collapsed; 1775, six x 12 two x 9 two x 8 fourteen x 6 pounders and three x 3 pounders with serviceable carriagespounder guns; 1780, only five working guns; 1781, Captured by British called Fort George; 1782, Captured by French; 1783, Returned to Dutch; 1786, Due to structural neglect three pounder guns installed; 1846, Abandoned
Blockhouse Amersfort, New York Dutch; 1630, Built on Staten Island; 1664, Surrendered to English.
Fort St Pierre, Nova Scotia French; 1630, Small fortified fur trade settlement; 1669, Destroyed by fire.

Abraham Shurte's Fort (Fort Pemaquid, Fort Charles, Fort William Henry, Fort Frederick), Maine

Commanders: 1630-1633, Abraham Shurte, 1729, Colonel David Dunbar

English; 1630, Palisaded trading post; 1633, Attacked and burnt down by Captain Dixie Bull's pirates but rebuilt and renamed Fort Pemaquid; 1676-1677, Rebuilt as Fort Charles a timber redoubt with bastioned outwork and garrisoned by soliers; 1689, Attacked and destroyed by French Baron Vincent de Castine; 1692, Rebuilt as William Henry; 1696, Attacked and destroyed by Baron de Castine;1728, Destroyed by French and Indians; 1729, Rebuilt as Fort Frederick; 1740 Added Shirely Bastion with 20 42-pound guns; 1759, Abandoned; 1775, Destroyed by locals to prevent British use.
The Castle (Castle William, Fort Independence), Massachusetts British; 1630, Built with wooden stockade on Castle Island at Boston; 1673, Destroyed by fire; c1674, rebuilt larger fort with stone bastions & 38 guns; 1689, Rebuilt larger and renamed Castle William; 1692, Rebuilt with 54 guns 1701-1703, Expanded to major fort with stone buildings & 100 guns; 1740, Added Shirely Bastion with 20 42-pound guns; 1775, Occupied by British; 1776, Destroyed by British; 1776, Captured by the colonials and renamed Fort Independence; 1801, Rebuilt; 1880, Abandoned.
Fort Zwaanandael, Delaware Dutch; 1631, Built; 1632, Attacked and burned by Indians.
Fort Frank (Frank's Fort), Maine English; 1631, Built by Laconia Company to protect company employees in a salt industry project.

Fort Sainte Marie De Grace, Nova Scotia

Commander: Gouverneur Isaac de Razilly

French; 1632, Built as first capital of New France.
Pavonia Outpost, New Jersey Dutch; c1633, Abandoned due to Indian attacks.
Fort Matianuck (Plymouth Trading House, Windsor Blockhouse), Connecticut English; 1633, Built to counter Dutch developments; 1637, Built with palisades during the Pequot War.
Plantation Fort, Barbados English; c1633, Built by armed settlers as local protection with two cannon.

Fort Het Huys de Hoop (Fort Good Hope, House of Hope, Fort Hartford), Connecticut

Commander: Jacob van Curler

Dutch; 1633, Built Dutch fort; 1654, Captured by English and renamed Fort Hartford.
Fort St Mary, Maryland English; 1634, Built 120' square palisaded fort with four bastions; 1637, Abandoned.
Corn Hill Fort (Fort Hill, Fort ), Massachusetts English; 1634, Built as small fort; 1687, Rebuilt as four-bastioned quadrangular earthwork and palisaded barracks called Fort ; 1760, Burnt; 1774, Reoccupied; 1776, Abandoned.
Fort Trois-Rivieres, Québec French; 1634, Built to protect colonists from Indians and English; 1760, Captured by British; 1775, Failed American attack; c1785, Abandoned.
Castillo San Cristóbal, Puerto Rico Spanish; 1634-1650, Built San Cristóbal redoubt and stone walls and dry moat around San Juan; 1765-1783, Major additions of 150' walls up to 25' thick and with El Morro c455 guns and 450-man garrison; 1797, Failed attack by 6,000 man-invasion by English Major General Ralph Abercromby; 1855, Siezed in mutiny; 12 May 1898, Bombarded in Spanish-American War.
Gale's Head Fort (Fort Sewall), Massachusetts English; 1634, Fortified; 1742, Re-built and re-named Fort Sewall; 1775, Re-built; 1794, Block house added; 1809, Eight guns; 1861, 12 guns; 1898, Briefly garrisoned.
Fort Saybrook (Fort Fenwick), Connecticut English; 1635, Built palisaded wooden fort to counter Dutch; 1647, Burnt; 1648, Rebuilt nearby; 1675, Failed Dutch attack; 1776, Rebuilt; 1812, Rebuilt and called Fort Fenwick.
Fort Stage (Fort Conant, Fort Banks, Fort Cross, Fort Allen), Massachusetts English; 1636.
Signal Hill Blockhouse (Flagstaff Fort, Fort Tompkins), New York Dutch; 1636, Dutch Built on Staten Island, 1655, Burned by Indians, 1655, Rebuilt, 1664, Surrendered to English; 1776, Rebuilt by Americans as Flagstaff Fort.
New England Defence, 250 men, 300 Indians, English, 7-10 June 1637, Pequot War, 18 May-11 August 1676, Indian War,

New England Defence, Massachusetts

Commanders: Governor Winthrop, Captains Endicott, John Mason, John Underhill,

English; 7-10 June 1637, Garrison 250 men; Pequot Indian War, 18 May-11 August 1676, Indian War.
Bay Bulls Fort, Newfoundland English; 1638, Built for defence against French; 1695-1696, Attacked by French; 1705, Attacked by French; 1762, Captured by French as base for Attack on St John's.

Fort Christina (Fort Altena, Fort Union), Delaware

Commander: 1638, Peter Minuit, 1655, Peter Stuyvesant, 1665, Sir Robert Carr

Swedish; 1638, Built as Swedes landed colony known as New Sweden; 1655, Captured by Dutch renamed Fort Altena; 1655, Dutch deployed 20 guns in four siege batteries around fort, 1664, Occupied by English; 1812, Rebuilt by Americans as Fort Union.
San Juan, Puerto Rico Spanish; 1634-1638, Built 42' high double walls filled with sand around city.
Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas, Colombia Spanish; 1639, Building started in Cartagena de Indias by Antonio De Arévalo and built of red brick and concrete designed so even if one part of the fortress fell to invaders (which never happened) defenders could fire from another part; 1789, Fortress construction completed for protection against pirates with a tunnel system meant to facilitate supply and evacuation of the largest city fortress.
Fort Sainte Marie (Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons), Ontario French; 1639, Palisaded Jesuit Mission and Huron Indian lodges; 1649, Destroyed by Iroquois Indians.

Presidio San Luis de Talimali (San Luis de Apalachee), Florida

Commander: Don Juan Mexia

Spanish; Headquarters for local mission settlements moated and palisaded with 90' x 60' block house; 1704, Destroyed by Spanish when threatened by Governor James Moore, of South Carolina in his destruction of the Apalachee Indians.
Fort Mecoponacka, Pennsylvania Swedish; 1641, Built for defence against Indians.
Fort Richelieu, Québec French; 1641.

Fort Montréal, Québec

Commanders: 1641, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve

French; 1642, Built to defend Ville-Marie settlement in Place Royale a palisaded log fort; 1642, Attacked by Iroquois Indians; 1643, Attacked by Iroquois Indians; 1644, Attacked by Iroquois Indians; 1658, Attacked by Iroquois Indians; 1662, Garrisoned; 1701, Iroquois Indian attacks until peace treaty signed; 1760, Captured by British;
Fort Crailo, New York English; 1642, Fortified stone house loopholed and surrounded by a palisade.

Fort Nya (New) Gottenburg, Pennsylvania

Commander: Johan Bijornsson Printz

Swedish; 1643, Built of palisaded logs with four guns on Tinicum Island; 1645, Burned down but rebuilt as capital of New Sweden; 1653, Attacked and destroyed by Indians.

Fort Elfsborg (Myggenborg), New Jersey

Commander: Johan Bijornsson Printz

Swedish; 1643, Built to control Delaware River traffic; 1655, Burned by Swedes because of mosquitoes.
Fort Sale, Virgin Islands Dutch; 1644.
Fort Charles, Virginia English; 1644.

Fort Henry, Virginia

Commander: Abraham Wood

English; 1645, Garrisoned with 10 men; 1611, Added trading poSt
Fort Vasa (Wasa), Pennsylvania Swedish; 1646; Two blockhouses and a mill.
Fort Molndal, Pennsylvania Dutch; 1646, Built with two blockhouses and a mill; 1655, Probably used by Dutch after seizure of New Sweden.
Fort Beversreede, Pennsylvania Dutch; 1648, Built of palisaded logs as trading post on Schuylkill River; 1651, Abandoned to Swedes after Swedish vandalising and military intimidation.
Fort Annonciation (Fort Staint Louis, ), Grenada, West Indies French; 1649, Built pre-assembled wood fort and palisade plus ditch against Carib Indians;
Fort Villebon (Fort Martignon, Fort Charnisay, Fort Menagouche, Fort Saint Jean, Saint John, Fort Frederick), New Brunswick French; 1650, fort used as administrative centre and defence against the Huron and Iroquois Indians; 1672, Re-built re-named Fort Martignon; 1700, Re-built re-named Fort St Jean; 1748, Re-built; July 1755, Destroyed on French withdrawal; 1758, Re-built re-named Fort Frederick; August 1775, Captured and burnt by Americans; 1812, Re-built as blockhouse magazine with two 12 pounder guns. c1815, Abandoned.
Charles Fort, Barbados English; 1650, Built at Carlisle Bay for protection during the Civil War; 1780, extended to 40 forts built with 364 cannon.
Fort Trois Rivières, Québec French; c1650, Built to guard colony from Indian attack; 1760, Captured by the English; 1775, Failed American Attack.
Fuerte del Cogímar (Presidio El Torreon), la Habana, Cuba, Spanish; c1650, Small square-shaped stone fortress.
Fort Sault Ste Marie, Ontario French; 1650, Built to protect fur trade; 1762, Occupied by British; 1799, Built blockhouse and used as trading post by North West Company (NWC) and Hudson's Bay Company (HBC).
Castillo de San Pedro de la Roca (Castillo El Morro), Santiago De Cuba, Cuba Spanish; 1650, Built of stone to protect the harbour at Santiago with five gun batteries (Estrella Battery Santa Catalina Battery Cayo Battery Western/Zokapa Battery Punta Gorda Battery); 1898, Built of stone to protect city were forts (Presidio Canosa Presidio Horno Presidio Centro Benefico Presidio Las Canadas Presidio Cuabitas Presidio Yacayo Presidio Harbor) blockhouses (Sueno Blockhouse Dos Caminos del Cobre Blockhouse Cubanitas Blockhouse plus seven more unnamed) and the Reina Mercedes Barracks - all of stone in the city area; 1898, on the nearby San Juan hill there was the San Juan Blockhouse plus three more and a small stone fort, called El Viso at El Caney; 1898 Spain was defeated and Santiago De Cuba was captured despite these fortifications in the Spanish American War.
Castillo Los Tres Del Morro (Castillo El Morro), la Habana, Cuba, Spanish; c1650, Built as large triangular-shaped stone fortress to protect the harbour at Havana (a walled city) with four gun batteries; 1898, Captured by Americans in the Spanish American War.
Fuerte de la Chorrera, Cuba Spanish
Castillo Principe de la Habana, Cuba Spanish; c1650; 1898, Used as barracks.
Castillo de San Salvador de la Punta (Presidio la Punta), la Habana, Cuba, Spanish; c1650, Built of stone as pentagon-shaped fortress to protect the harbour at Havana; 1898, Captured by Americans in the Spanish American War.
Castillo La Real Fuerza, la Habana, Cuba, Spanish; c1650, Built as stone cross-shaped fortress; 1898, Captured by Americans in the Spanish American War.
Fortaleza San Carlos de la Cabana, La Habana, Cuba, Spanish; c1650, Built as very large five-pointed stone fortress 1,000m x 200m; 1898, Captured by Americans in the Spanish American War.

Fort Royale (Fort Royal, Fort George, Fort Rupert), Grenada, West Indies

Commanders: 1762, Colonel Scott, 1770, Major Bruce

French; 1650, French planters broughtt a pre-fabricated fort consisting of a large building and stockade from Martinique; c1680, Stone fort with gun platforms four bastions and buildings outside for a garrison of Compagnies franches de la Marine to defend harbour; 1705-1710, Rebuilt in stone Vauban masonry-style with 37 guns and four bastions and a horn inland; 1762, Captured by British Commodore Swanton and Brigadier Walsh; 1778, Built additional defences; 2-5 July 1779, Attacked and occupied by French Vice Admiral Count Charles-Henri d'Estaing; 1783, Returned to British by treaty and occupied by troops withdrawn from America; 1785, Renamed Fort George; c1790, Built hospital; 1798, Built new barracks; 1819, Increased garrison repaired cistern and built new barracks; 1832, Garrison reduced.

Fort Casimir (FortTrefalddighet, Fort New Amstel, New Castle), Delaware

Commander: 1651, Peter Stuyvesant, 1654, Johan Classon Rising, 1664, Colonel Richard Nichols

Dutch; 1651, Built; 21 May 1654, Captured by Swedes renamed Fort Trefalddighet; 1655, Recaptured by Dutch; 1658, Rebuilt renamed Fort New Amstel; 1664 Surrendered to English; 1673-1674, Occupied by Dutch; 1675, Returned to English; 1707, Capital of Delaware.
Fort Beverwijck (Fort Albany), New York Dutch; 1624, Built near Fort Oranje
Fort San Felipe, Guatemala Spanish; 1652, Built to protect the local villages and trading caravans from looting pirates.
Fort Star, New Hampshire English; 1653, Built two-gun stone fort built as a defense against Indians and French; 1692, Rebuilt with 11 guns; 1745, Garrisoned with nine guns; 1776, Destroyed by British.
Naaman Blockhouse, Delaware Swedish, 1654, Built as two-story stone blockhouse. 1755, Abandoned on Dutch takeover of Swedish colony.
Fort Sainte Marie De Gennentah (Gannentaha), New York French; 1656, Built stockaded fort.
Presidio San Luis, Florida Spanish
New Utrecht Blockhouse, New York Dutch, 1657, Dutch Built for protection of French Huguenots,
Fort Bergen, New Jersey Dutch
Corlaer's Fort (Fort Schenectady, Fort Royal, Queen's New Fort, Fort Crosby), New York Dutch; 1661, Built with one blockhouse; 1664, Surrendered to English Colonel Richard Nicholls and named Fort Schenectady; 1690, Built second blockhouse but destroyed in French raid; 1690-1691, Rebuilt with triple stockade and sixteen blockhouses; 1704, Rebuilt called Fort Royal; 1735, Rebuilt with stone foundation, 1755, Renamed Fort Crosby; 1775, 500 houses inside fort; 1783, Blockhouses and palisade were dismantled.

Fort Warburton (Fort Washington), Maryland

Commander: Pierre l'Enfant

English; 1661, Land patent with no fort; 1809, Americans built stone Fort Warburton with blockhouse and five-gun battery; 27 August 1814, Destroyed by Americans to prevent British capture; 1815, Renamed Washington and new batterys added; 1815-1929, Rebuilt; 1940, Abandoned.
Fort Plaisance, Placentia Bay Newfoundland French; 1662, Built to protect fishing access; 1665, Dutch Captured St John's; 1673, Defeated Dutch and Pirate Attacks; 1692, Defeated English naval Attack; September 1696, 400 French troops plus Indians Attack from Fort led by Le Moyne and Destroyed English St John's; 1705, French Attack St John's with 500 men from Placentia; 1709, Defeated garrison at St John's Fort William; 1711, Failed British Attack on Placentia.
Boswyck Blockhouses, New York Dutch, 1662, Built two blockhouses in Brooklyn.
Fort Greenbush, New York Dutch; 1663, Built as a stockade against Indian attack at East Greenbush New York.
Fort Rupert, Québec c1665, English,
Fort Ste. Thérése, Québec French; 1666, Built by la Regiment Carignan Salières for Richelieu River protection
1665, Presidio Silamotolo, Florida Spanish Florida,

Fort Ste Anne, Vermont

Commander: Captaine Sieur de la Motte

French; 1665; 1665, Built as protection from Mohawks; 1814, Occupied by British gun battery.
Castle William and Mary (Fort William and Mary), New Hampshire English; 1665, Construction begun; 1774, Attacked by colonists and surrendered 100 barrels of gun-powder 16 guns and 60 muskets; 1806 ,Occupied by Americans and rebuilt with nearby martello tower.
Fort Chambly, Québec French; 1665, Built to protect Montréal from Iroquois Indians; 1760, Captured by British; 1775-1776, Captured by Americans.
Fort Ste Anne, Vermont French; July 1666, Log-built 144' long with bastions and garrisoned by elements of la Regiment Carignan-Saliéres who launched raids against British.
Fort Saint Jean (Fort St John's), Québec French; 1760, Captured by English; 1775-1776, Captured by Americans, 1776, Reoccupied by British; 1778, Built supporting blockhouse; 1850, Built barracks.
Fort Marblehead, Massachusetts English; 1667, Built small fort.
Fort James (Fort Tyndall's Point, Gloucester Fort, Tyndall's Fort), Virginia English; 1667, Built palisaded Fort James to defend against the Dutch; 1756, Rebuilt with 15 guns called Gloucester Fort; 1781, Built main fort called Tyndall's Fort and four outer redoubts.
Fort Témiscamingue, Québec French; 1668, Built to protect Montréal and fur trade; c1713, Fur-trading post,
Charles Fort (Rupert's Fort, Fort Rupert, Fort Charles, Fort Saint Jacques, Rupert House), Québec English; 1668, Built on James Bay by French trader Groseilliers and resulted in 1670 creation of the Company of Adventurers (later called the Hudson's Bay Company) to defend English trade it became a Hudson's Bay Company post; 1686, Captured by French renamed Fort St Jacques; 1713, Returned to British; c1715, Moved and renamed Fort Rupert and manned by HBC.

Fort Niagara (Fort LsSalle, Fort Conti, de Pieux, Denonville, du Portage), New York

Commanders: 1669, Robert Rene Cavelier Sieur de la Salle, 1725, Joseph Gaspard Chausse-Gros de Lery, 1812, Captain Nathaniel Leonard, 1813, Lieutenant Colonel Guy Johnson

French; 1669, Built Fort LsSalle; 1679, Rebuilt Fort Conti burned down; 1687, Rebuilt as Fort Denonville; 1726, Rebuilt in stone with guns as Fort Niagara with drawbridge; 1755, Garrisoned barracks for 400 men and enlarged with palisades and moat; 1758, Rebuilt; 27 July 1759, Attacked by English Brigadier Prideaux who was killed fort captured by Sir William Johnson; 1766-1777, Built stone redoubts; 1796, Surrendered to Americans; November 1812, Rebuilt; 25-26 May 1813, Bombarded British Fort George; 18 December 1813, Captured by British; 1814, Rebuilt; 1815, Americans occupied; 1818, Abandoned; 1828, Garrisoned; 1839-1843, Rebuilt; 1848-1854, Garrisoned; 1861, Garrisoned.
Fort Charles Town (Charlestowne, Charleston), South Carolina English; 1670, Built small fort for protection from Indians, Spanish, French; 1680, Expanded palisade and moat built around whole settlement; 1713, Added magazine, barracks; 1720, Added earthworks and brick walls with bastions; 1735, Built gun batteries; 1757, Rebuilt fortifications added armoury and guardhouse after hurricane destruction; 1769, Added jail; 1776, Attacked by British; 11 February-12 May 1780, Captured by British Siege.
Fort Le Vieux-Fort (Fort St-Hélène), Québec French; c1670, Built on Île-Sainte-Hélène in St Lawrence River to guard Montréal; 1760, Captured and rebuilt by British; 1775-1776, Captured by Americans; 1776, Occupied by British.
Fort Christian, Saint Thomas Island Danish; 1672, Built at Charlotte Amelie, St Thomas Island in Caribbean.
Fort Tassinong, Indiana French; 1672
Fort Moose (Moose Factory, Fort Saint Louis), Ontario English; 1673, Built fur-trading fort; 1686, Captured by French; c1713, Recaptured by British and operated by HBC.

Fort Cataraqui (Fort Fontenac, Tête de Pont Barracks, Fort Fontenac), Ontario

Commanders: 1689, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

French; 1673, Built wooden palisade at the mouth of the Cataraqui River to control the fur trade and to supply French Ohio Valley outposts; Rebuilt with stone; c1750, Added three outer batteries; 25-27 August 1758, Siege and Captured by British under Lieutenant Colonel Bradstreet; 1758, Destroyed by British; 1783, Rebuilt to accommodate a military garrison for civil protection; 1789, Expanded and rebuilt fort called Tête de Pont Barracks; 1819-1824, Rebuilt; 1939, Renamed Fort Fontenac; 1871, Garrisoned with artillery battery.
Hingham Garrison Houses and Forts, Massachusetts English; c1675, Several garrison houses and three forts were built.
Presidio Santa Elena, Florida Spanish; 1675
Fort Josselyn (Jocelyn's Fort, Joshua Scottow's Fort), Maine English; Built 1675 of logs; 1676, Captured by Indians; 1677, Recaptured by colonials attacked again; 1703, Failed attack by 500 French and Indians to eight defenders; c1705 Abandoned.
El Presidio de la Plaza de la Habana, Cuba Spanish; 1676
Fort Colonial, Virginia English; 1677
Fort de Buade (Fort Michilimackinac), Michigan French; c1678, Built earthwork fort to protect Jesuit mission; 1701, Abandoned.
Fort Kaninistiquia (Fort William), Ontario French; 1678, First fort; 1717, Rebuilt named Fort Kaninistiquia; 1814, English Build Fort William.

Fort St Joseph (Fort Checagou), Illinois

Commander: Robert Rene Sieur de la Salle

French; c1679, Probably established as exploration base for de la Salle; c1682, Destroyed by Blackfoot Indians but rebuilt as Fort Checagou; 1763, Abandoned.

Fort Miami, Michigan

Commanders: 1679, Robert Rene Cavelier Sieur de la Salle

French; c1685, Destroyed by Indians; 1700, Rebuilt with Jesuit mission; 1761, Occupied by British; 1763, Captured by Pontiac and destroyed.
Presidio San Marcos de Apalache (Fort Apalache, Apalachee, Fort St Marks), Florida Spanish; 1679, Small wood fort; 1682, Burnt by pirates; 1704, Destroyed by Carolinians; March 1718, Fort rebuilt by governor of Saint Augustine to protect the Apalachee Indians remaining after South Carolina Governor James Moore's and Yamassee Indian allies depradations; 1739, Rebuilt stone fort; 1765, English occupied and renamed Fort Apalache; 1783, Abandoned and occupied by Spanish ; 1818, American occupied and renamed Fort St Marks; 1839, Largely demolished.
Fort Crevecoeur (Fort Lewis), Illinois French; 1680, Built by Sieur de La Salle; 1681, Troops mutinied; 1682, Indians burned and destroyed fort.
Presidio Santa Catalina, Florida Spanish
Presidio Santa Maria de Apalache (Fort Santa Maria), Florida Spanish; 1686, A Spanish military headquarters.
Fort Le Vieux, Newfoundland French; 1680, Built irregular four-point star-shaped fortress.
Pepperell's Fort (Fort William, Fort McClary) English; 1680, Named after Sir William Pepperell; 1812, Blockhouse added.
Presidio San Antonio de Anacape, Florida Spanish
Fort Casco, Maine English; c1680, Built and Garrisoned by 20 Massachusetts militiamen.
Fort Coulonge, Québec French; 1680, Built to protect fur trade; 1793, Occupied by North West Company (NWC )as trading post; 1821, Occupied by Hudson's Bay Company (HBC); 1827, Rebuilt.
Fort William, Newfoundland English; 1697, Rebuilt on earlier British fort; 1705, Defeated French Attack; 1709, Surrendered and Captured by French but recovered by English; 1710, Fort Rebuilt; 17 June 1762, Surrendered Captured and Occupied by French; 15-18 September 1762, Siege and French Defeated and Fort Recovered by English; 1790, Rebuilt; 1867, British withdrew.
Fort Népigon, Ontario French

Fort Prudhomme, Tennessee

Commander: Robert Rene Sieur de la Salle

French; 1682, Log fort built against Chickasaw Indians.
York Factory (Fort Bourbon, Fort Nelson), Manitoba English; 1682, Hudson's Bay Company fortified post with stone powder magazine; 1694-1695, Captured by French for lucrative fur trade; 1695, Recovered by English; 1697, French ship defeated three English ships and captured the post; 1797, Re-built; 1713, Re-occupied by English; 1715, Re-built at mouth of Hayes River; 1788, Re-built; 1832, Re-built.

Fort Saint Nicholas, Wisconsin

Commander: Nicholas Perrot

French; 1682, Log fort.

Fort Saint Louis du Rocher (Fort Saint Louis, Fort Saint Louis des Illinois), Illinois

Commander: Robert Rene Sieur de la Salle, Henri de Tonti

French; 1682, Palisaded trading post built on a rock by La Salle; consists of an isolated cliff 100m high on the south side of the Illinois River the summit contains 3/4 acre in area the fort, consisting of earth-works, palisades, store-houses and a block house, which also served as a dwelling and trading post; 1691, Often abandoned but used by traders; 1702, Abandoned by French; 1721, Captured and burned by Indians.

Fort Perrot, Minnessota

Commander: Nicholas Perrot

French; 1683, Log fort.
Presidio de El Paso del Río Grande del Norte, Mexico Spanish; 1683, Built at Juarez; 1773, Moved to Carrizal Mexico; 1775, garrison 46 men.

Fort de Vincennes (St Francis Xavier, Fort Ouabache, Fort Sackville, Fort Patrick Henry), Indiana

Commander: Jean Sacqueville

French; 1683, Built as fortified trading post at Vincennes; 1705, Built fort; 1724, Rebuilt; 1732, Rebuilt and garrisoned; 1763, Acquired by British; 1777, Rebuilt and occupied by British; 1778, Captured by colonials but returned; 25 February 1779, Surrendered to Americans and renamed.

Fort Talbot, Delaware

Commander: 1684, Colonel George Talbot

English; 1684, Built and garrisoned over a boundary dispute ruled against Maryland whose militia withdrew from fort.
Presidio Julimes, Texas Spanish; 1684, Built on site of la Junta on Rio Grande to guard the integral Spanish mission.; 1775, Garrison 46 men.

Fort La Baye (Fort St François, St Francis Xavier, Fort Edward Augustus), Wisconsin

Commander: 1684, Nicholas Perrot

French; 1684, Built by Nicholas Perrot as Fort La Baye trading outpost on a Jesuit Mission established in 1669; 1717, Re-built and re-named as Fort St François; 1728, Attacked and destroyed by Indians; 1733, Re-built; 1761, Occupied by English as Fort Edward Augustus; 1763, Abandoned in Chief Pontiac's Indian Rebellion.

Nicholas Perrot's Post (Rene Godefroy sieur de Linctot's Post), Wisconsin

Commander: Nicholas Perrot

French; 1685, Stockaded log fort. 1731-1736, Re-built as Rene Godefroy sieur de Linctot's PoSt

Fort St Louis, Texas

Commanders: René Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, Lieutenant Henri Joutel,

French; 1685, Built stockaded settlement fort for 400 colonists; 1687, Attacked and destroyed by Comanche Indians.
Fort Saint Louis, Texas French; 1685, Garrison of 50 men established Garcitas River mouth on Texas Gulf Coast seeking Mississippi; 1688, Attacked and destroyed by Indians; 1689, Spanish found it demolished.
Presidio Santa Maria, Florida Spanish; 1686.
Presidio Santa Fe (Santa Fe Tolosa?), Florida Spanish; 1686.
Presidio de San Felipe y Santiago de Janos (Presidio Janos), Mexico Spanish; Built 1686. 1775, garrison 46 men,

Fort St Antoine, Wisconsin

Commander: Nicholas Perrot

French; 1686.

Fort St Joseph, Michigan

Commander: c1686 Daniel Duluth

French; 1686, Built stockaded fort to protect fur trade from British; 1781, Captured by Spanish; 1688, Abandoned and burned.
Presidio San Fernando, Florida Spanish; 1686, Built by Spain for colonial protection against Indians; 1702, Destroyed by South Carolina colonials.

Fort Ste Antoine, Wisconsin

Commander: Nicholas Perrot

French; 1686, Stockaded log fort to defend trade.

Fort les Acansas (Arkansas Post, Fort San Carlos, Fort Carlos III, Fort San Estevan de Arkanzas, Fort San Estevan de Arkanzas, Fort Hindman), Arkansas

Commander: Henri de Tonti

French; 1686, First permanent white settlement in state; 1748, Rebuilt after move due to flooding; 1752, Rebuilt and moved; 1765, Occupied by Spanish called Fort San Carlos; 1771, Rebuilt; 1779 Rebuilt as polygon stockade with 15 x 3-pounder guns in bastions, garrison of 30 troops; 1783, Unsuccessfully attacked by Chickasaw Indians; 1791, Rebuilt called Fort San Estevan de Arkanzas; 1796, Rebuilt; 1804, Occupied by Americans; c1862, Confederates built Hindman an 11-gun earth fort; 1865, USA attacked with 25,000 men captured 5,000 Confederates and destroyed fort.
Fort Gratiot, Michigan French; 1686.
Fuerte San Miguel, Campeche, Mexico Spanish; 1686, Built as large fortress of stone with walls and gun positions for defence against pirates.
Fort Crevier, Québec French; 1687, Built 1687 French wooden fort.
Fort Laprairie, Québec French; 1687.
Fort Andros (Fort George), Maine English: 1688, Built stone fort; 1690, Attacked and destroyed by French and Indians; 1715. Built Fort George stone fort with four bastions and barracks; 1722, Attacked and burned by Indians; 1737, Abandoned; 1814, Occupied by British and gun batteries added nearby; 1815, Abandoned.
Presidio Apalsache, Florida Spanish; 1689.

Fort Vrooman (Fort Saratoga,Fort Clinton), New York

Commander: 1702, Colonel Peter Schyler

English; 1689, Built on the Hudson River as a blockhouse to support the Winthrop Expedition; 1702, Rebuilt as a stockaded supply post called Fort Saratoga to support the Nicholson Expedition; 1721, Rebuilt by Phillip Livingston. November 1744, Attacked & Destroyed by 400 French and 200 Iroquois; 1746, Rebuilt in 1746 as Fort Clinton.
Presidio Apalachicola, Alabama Spanish; 1689, Moated and palisaded fort; 1691, Abandoned and destroyed to keep from British.

Fort Frey, New York

Commanders: 1689, Hendrick Frey, 1739, Major John Frey

English; 1689, Fortified trading post built; 1702, Palisaded; 1739, Replaced by loopholed stone building.
Presidio Apalachicola (Fort Apalachicola), Georgia Spanish; 1689, Built as a wattle-and-daub blockhouse defence against Indians on Chattahoochee River; 1691, Abandoned; 1755, Occupied by British.
Fort Burnt Point, Bermuda English; 1690, Stone fort.
Fort Anne (Fort Schuyler, Queen's Fort), New York English; 1690, Built as a fortified camp on the way to invade Canada; 1692, Used again for another expedition to invade Canada; 1709, Fortified as Fort Schuyler but destroyed; 1711, Rebuilt in 1711 as Queen's Fort and then re-named Fort Anne with 140' square palisade (filled with earth) two interior buildings and four 20' square bastions; 1757, Re-built with stone arsenal and magazine; 1777-1780, Used by both Americans and British; 1780, Burned.
Presidio San Bernardo (Fort George, Fort Waldeck, Presidio San Miguel, Fort St Michael, Presidio San Bernardo, Presidio Sombrero), Florida Spanish; 1690, Built small fort to protect against Indians and French; 1763, Rebuilt by British as Fort George large fort with many buildings block houses and redouts; 1781, Captured by Spanish renamed Fort San Bernardo and Queen's Redoubt re-named Presidio San Miguel while Prince of Wales Redoubt re-named Presidio Sombrero; 1783, Re-built and re-named Presidio San Miguel; c1813, Captured by British and re-named Fort St Michael; 1814, Captured and abandoned by Americans; 1821, Abandoned by Spanish.
Fort Anne (Fort Schuyler, Queen's Fort), New York English; 1690, Built as a fortified camp on the way to invade Canada; 1692, Used again for another expedition to invade Canada; 1709, Fortified as Fort Schuyler but destroyed; 1711, Rebuilt in 1711 as Queen's Fort and then re-named Fort Anne with 140' square palisade (filled with earth) two interior buildings and four 20' square bastions; 1757, Re-built with stone arsenal and magazine; 1777-1780, Used by both Americans and British; 1780, Burned.
Presidio San Diego de Spinoza, Florida Spanish; c1690, Small fort; 1730, Palisaded fortified ranch two bastions five guns; 1740 Had 11 guns; 1740, Captured by General James Edward Oglethorpe in failed Attack on St Augustine.
Fort Loyal (Fort New Casco, Falmouth Fort), Maine English; 1690, Built palisaded log fort; 1700, Rebuilt and enlarged with four blockhouses and eight guns; 1700, Attacked by French and destroyed; 1703, Attacked by French and Indians; 1708, Rebuilt as Fort New Casco; 1716, Abandoned; 1742, Rebuilt and called Falmouth Fort; 1775, Earth fort built.
Québec City Walls, La Citadelle, Cap-Aux-Diamant Redoubt, Québec French, 1690-1745, City walls, 1693-1760, Redoubt and five bastions built by French, 1750, powder house added, 1778-1783, Temporary Citadelle English Built with four blockhouses, 1797, three blockhouses built at Cap-aux-Diamant Redoubt, 1820, Re-built to protect Québec as 25- building complex.

Captain Jacobus de Warm Stockade (Fort Pointe à la Chevelure, Fort de Pieux, Chimney Point), Vermont

Commander: Captain Jacobus de Warm

English; 1690, Stockade built to monitor French; 1731, French occupied and built Fort Pointe à la Chevelure as 100' square stockade with four bastions; 1737, Abandoned for new Fort St Frederic; 1760, Burnt by Mohawk Indians; 1775, English rebuilt small fort and garrison.
Ferry Point Forts (Fort Ferry Island), Bermuda English; 1690, Built stone fort; c1810, Added Martello Tower.
Fort Louis, Newfoundland French; 1691, Captured by British.
Presidio San Diego de Pupo (Fort Picolata), Florida Spanish; c1691, Built at strategic Saint John's river crossing crossing paired (on opposite sides) with sister San Francisco de Pupo; 1740, Captured and destroyed by General James Edward Oglethorpe in failed Attack on St Augustine; 1743, Rebuilt by Spanish as 30' two-story square coquina towers palisaded and moated with eight guns; 1763, Occupied intermittently by British.
Fort Nashwaak, New Brunswick French; 1692, Built on the north side of the Saint John River.
Fort Le Gaillardin (Gaillardin Redoubt), Newfoundland French; 1692, Built to defend against land attack.
Fort Pimitoui (Fort Illinois, Fort St Louis, Fort Peoria), Illinois French; 1692, Built by Henri de Tonty and Francois Dauphin de La Forest, who had acquired the concession or charter formerly held by La Salle, assassinated in Texas in 1687.

Presidio de Santa Rosa de Corodéguachi (Presidio Fronteras), Mexico

Commanders: 1702, Capitan Don Gregorio Alvarez Tuñón y Quirós, 1726, Capitan Juan Bautista de Anza, Capitan Alonso de Sosa Albornoz

Spanish; 1692, Built to protect against Pimas and Apache Indians; 1701, Had 'Flying Squad' of cavalry for area response; 1780, Moved south by Teodoro de Croix; 1775, garrison 46 men.
Fort Albany, Ontario English, c1692, Built to defend the HBC James' Bay fur trade from the French and Indians. Closed in 1941.
Fort Cavalier Du Moulin, Québec French; 1693, Defensive works redundant with later rampart construction.

Fort St Esprit (Fort La Pointe), Wisconsin

Commander: Le Sueur

French; 1693, Built as a fortified trading post; 1698, Abandoned; 1718, Re-built and re-named as Fort La Pointe; 1759, Abandoned.
Fort Royal, Newfoundland French; 1693, Built with blockhouse barracks powder magazine and guardhouse; 1713, Captured by British; 1762, Rebuilt.
Fort Miami (Fort St Philippe, Fort Miamis, Fort Wayne), Indiana French; 1693, Built fortified trading post; 1704, Built wood fort; 1712, Rebuilt as Fort Miamis; 1722, Rebuilt; 1748, Burnt by Sioux Indians; 1750, Rebuilt; 1760, Occupied by British and re-named Fort Miami; 27 May 1763, Captured and Burned by Miami Indians; c1764, Recovered by British;
Fuerte de Matanza, Cuba Spanish, 1694.

Fort le Sueur, Minnesota

Commander: Pierre Charles le Sueur

French; 1694, Trading post on island (perhaps on earlier 1654 site).
Fort El Rosario, Florida Spanish; c1694, Built in St John’s County in St Augustine.
Presidio Posa, Florida Spanish; c1764, Built on Anastasia Island.
Presidio San Bernardo (Saint Bernard), Florida Spanish; c1695, Built in St John’s County in St Augustine.
Presidio Ayavalia, Florida Spanish; c1695, Built to protect against Indians and English; 1704, Destroyed by South Carolina colonials.
Fort San Francisco de Pupo (Fort Poppa, Fort Saint Francis de Poppa), Florida Spanish; 1695, Built at strategic Saint John's river crossing paired (on opposite sides) with sister San Diego de Pupo at Presidio Picolata; 1743, Rebuilt by Spanish as 30' two-story square coquina towers palisaded and moated with eight guns; 1763, Occupied intermittently by British.
Presidio San Carlos (Fort San Carlos de Barrancas, Fort St Charles), Florida Spanish; 1696, Built in Barrancas, Escambia County.

Oulton's Garrison (Oldton's Fort, Fort Garrison), Maryland

Commander, 1696, Captain Oldton

English; 1696, Built of stone as headquarters for a troop of six mounted rangers to patrol paths from the Patapsco to the Susquehanna Rivers as a protection against Indians.
Fort Sombrero, Florida Spanish; 1696, Built on Santa Rosa Island.

Presidio Anchusa, Florida

Commander: d'Ariola

Spanish; 1696, D'Ariola founded Pensacola and built square bastioned fort; 1719, Captured by French; 1721, Returned to Spain.
Fort Fort St John's (Signal Hill), Newfoundland English; 1696, Built log fort; 1696, Captured by French and recovered by English; 1705, Captured by French and recovered by English; 1709, Captured by French and recovered by English; 1762, Captured by French and recovered by English; 1795, Built blockhouse; 1796, Built gun battery; 1800-1815, Built three batteries; 1860, Rebuilt fort; 1870, Abandoned.
Fort Dorchester, South Carolina British; 1697, Built tabby-cement fort to protect against Indians.
Fort St Joseph, Michigan French; 1697, Built fortified trading post to protect Jesuit mission; 1761, Occupied by British; 1763, Captured by Pontiac; 1764, Returned to British; 1775, Garrisoned by British; 1781, Captured by Spanish and given to Americans.

Presidio of Nuestra Señora de Loreto (Presidio Loreto), Baha California, Mexico

Commanders: Capitans y Gobernadores Luis Torres y Tortello, 1699, Antonio Garcia de Mendoza, 1723, Lorenzo Rodriguez, 1750, Fernando Javier de Rivera y Moncada

Spanish; 1697, Garrison 25 men in wood fort; 1697, Attacked by 400 Indians and fort rebuilt; 1698, Skirmishes with Indians; 1699, Garrison 15 men; 1701, Fort square with moat and four bastions and adobe barracks; 1723-1729, Attacked Indians by suprise raids; 1734, Garrison 30 men; 1734-1744, Pericué and Guaicurvo Indian rebellion;
Fort New Casco, Maine British; 1698, Built 70' square earthwork palisaded fort with buildings; 1703, Attacked by the French; 1705, Rebuilt as 250' x 190' fort with a supporting blockhouse at shore.
Presidio Fuerte San Carlos d'Austria(Fort St Charles, Presidio St Charles, Fort San Carlos, Fort Barrancas), Florida Spanish; 1698, Built wooden fort; 1719, Attacked by French and destroyed; 1721, Re-built; 1752, Re-built; 1771, Occupied by British re-named Fort St Charles and Re-built; 1790, Re-built by Spain after destroying British work a log and earthen work; 1796, Re-built after Britain re-gained fort; 1814, Seized and destroyed by Americans; 1839-1844, Rebuilt and re-named Fort Barrancas.

Fuerte San Carlos d'Austria (Fort St Charles, Fort San Carlos de Barrancas, Fort San Carlos, Fort Barrancas), Florida

Commander: 1698, Captain Juan Jordán de Reina 

Spanish; 1698, Built wood fort; 1707, Failed Carolinian attack garrison 220 men;1719, Captured by French destroyed and burnt; 1721, Rebuilt by Spanish; 1752, Rebuilt by Spanish; 1771, English occupied and rebuilt log and earth fort with redoubt; 1793, Spanish destroyed English work and rebuilt in brick naming Fort San Carlos de Barrancas; 1796, English returned; 1814, American General Jackson invaded Florida and British destroyed and abandoned fort; 1839-1844, Americans rebuilt nearby naming Fort Barrancas.
Fort Tamarans (Fort Cahokia Fort Bowman,), Illinois French; 1699, Built as fortified trading post and mission; 1765, Rebuilt stone mission and occupied by British; 1778, Captured by Americans and renamed Fort Bowman.

Fort Biloxi (Fort Maurepas, New Fort Biloxi, Fort St Louis), Mississippi,

Commanders: Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d' Iberville, Sauvolle, Louis Juchereau, Cavalier de St Denis,

French; 1699, Built by Iberville as first French defence and capital in Louisiana with 12 guns bastions moat barracks etc; 1702, Abandoned; 1719, Rebuilt and reoccupied as New Fort Biloxi; 1721, Abandoned for New Orleans.
Fort Dauphin, Alabama French; c1699, Built on island; 1763, Taken by British; 1780, Taken by Spanish and at least one battery erected; 17783, Wood fort erected; 1813, Captured by the Americans.

ENDNOTES

1         There are many sources, including endless internet sites, however, I found some paricularly helpful. The website at http://www.geocities.com/naforts/ provides a large database of forts listed separately by state. Bruce Grant, American Forts, Yesterday and Today; and Pete and Phil Payette's NORTH AMERICAN FORTIFICATIONS at http://www.geocities.com/forts. The latter is an extended site covering the American states and Canadian provinces, plus some Mexican and Caribbean forts. Therre is a history of Illinois forts at http://www.genealogytrails.com/ill/forts.html#PREHISTORIC, West Virginia forts at http://www.rootsweb.com/~wvwags/forts.txt. For specific French details see http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/6750/links.htm and http://www.mlrmag.com/pubaddnl/TonyG/french.htm, a specialist list of Florida forts ia at http://www.treasurelore.com/florida/florida_forts.htm, New York forts are at http://www.dmna.state.ny.us/forts/fortsA_D/anneFort.htm, and Canadian forts see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hudson%27s_Bay_Company_forts. I also consulted authors like Frank McLynn,1759, the Year Britain Became Master of the World, and Fred Anderson, Crucible of War for more specific details. A full list of useful websites may be found in the bibliography under Internet Citations.

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