6

EUROPEAN FORTIFICATIONS BUILT IN NORTH AMERICA: 1700-1799

I have used a geographical definition and fudged this area to include the Caribbean, Central America, and northern South America. The names of many of these forts are a desperate confusion and I have included all those names for a structure that I have been able to collect.[1] I have further ignored minor site adjustments in various re-buildings of fortifications. A military fort was usually built for strategic reasons in some specified area and even if ownership and nationality changed the strategic purpose was often recognised and adopted.

Search techniques for this database might use the following keys: name, dates, nationality, or battles. No doubt there are errors here, however with such large numbers that is probably inevitable and are only of detail.

European Fortifications Built in America: 1700-1799

Names & Location

Construction & Events

Fort Le Huillier (Fort Le Sueur, Forte Verte), Minnesota,

Commander: Pierre Charles le Sueur

French; 1700, Le Sueur explored the Mississippi seeking copper to mine and built the fort during the autumn and winter as protection against the Dakota Indians. 1702, Attacked by Fox Indians and then abandoned.
Fort St Andrew, Panama Scottish; 1700, Built of logs with 50 cannons and sited behind a man-made canal to protect the short-lived Darien Colony.

Fort Louis de la Louisiana (Fort Iberville, Fort de la Boulaye) Louisiana

Commanders: 1702, Pierre le Moyne Sieur d'Iberville, 1706, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur de Bienville

French; 1700, Built as 28' square six-gun blockhouse to protect the capital of Louisiana; 1707, Abandoned militarily but used as trading post, 1711, Abandoned and garrison moved to Fort Louis de la Mobile.

Presidio de San Juan Bautista del Río Grande (Presidio San Juan Bautista), California

Commander: Capitans 1700, Diego Ramón, c1756, Manuel Rodríguez, c1773, Vicente Rodríguez

Spanish; 1700, Established to protect three missions and a town; 1703, 'Flying Company' of cavalry authorised for mobile responses; 1729, Explored Rio Grande River; 1732, Garrison on Apache campaign; 1739, Garrison on Apache campaign; 1747, Explored Rio Grande River; 1758, Garrison on punative expedition against Indians; 1769, Fought hostile Indians on expedition up Rio Grande to Presidio de El Paso; 1772, Near continuous battles with Apaches; 1775, On Apache campaign company into New Mexico; 1836, Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna's army staged nearby and General Adrián Woll assembled at the presidio to attack Texas

Fort Anne (Fort George, Fort Liberty, Fort Washington, Fort Wolcott), Rhode Island

Commanders: 1740, Colonel John Cranston, 1794-1800, Captain William Littlefield, 1812, Captain Julius Heiliman, 1819-1825, Captain Ichabod B. Crane, 1828-1836, Brevet Major Mann Page Lomax

English; 1700, Built as pentagon for sea protection with 12 guns; 1730, Re-built with outer batteries and re-named Fort George with 50 guns; 1775, Seized and re-named Fort Liberty; 1776, Recovered by British; October 1779, Abandoned; July 1780-June 1781, Occupied by French; October 1781, Re-named Fort Washington; 1798, Re-named Fort Wolcott; 1836, Garrison removed.

Fort Pontchartrain (Fort Detroit), Michigan

Commanders: 1701, Antoine de Lamothe Sieur de Cadillac, 1760, Major Henry Gladwin

French; 1701, Built as a fortified fur trading post; 1760, Indian Chief Detroit surrendered here British re-built and re-named Fort Detroit; 1763, Failed Attack by Ottawa Potawatomies Wyandot and Chippewa Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion; 1777, Abandoned.

Fort Louis de La Louisiane (Fort Condé, Fort Charlotte, Fortaleza Carlota), Alabama

Commander: Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville

French; 1702, Built by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville to support the French capital, 1704, the fort was 120m square with four bastions each of a battery of 6 x guns protruding outside in a half circle covering the front within the curtains were 4 x buildings and in the midst of these buildings was a place d'armes 90m square; 1711, Moved to Mobile; 1723, Re-built fort in brick and stone and re-named Fort Condé; 1763, Cede to Britain as Fort Charlotte; 1780, Captured by Spain and re-named Fortaleza Carlota; 1813, Captured by America.

Presidio de San Juan Bautista, Coahuila, Mexico

Commander: Theniente General, Cabo y Caudillo, Capitan Diego Ramon

Spanish; 1702.
Fort Piribiriba, Florida Spanish; 1703, a wood fort with four bastions to protect Indians from the British.

Presidio San Juan Bautista, California

Commander: 1703, Capitan Don Diego Ramón

Spanish; 1703. Garrisoned with one company.

Fort Crailo, New York

Commander: 1704, Hendrick Van Rensselaer

Dutch; 1704, Built as fortified house; 1742, Occupied as a palisaded fortified house as Fort Crailo.
Presidio San Joseph de Vallardes (Fort Crèvecouer, Presidio San José, Fort St Joseph's), Florida Spanish; 1704, Presidio abandoned; 1718, French built Fort Crèvecouer stockade with four bastions and 50 men; 1719, Attacked and surrendered to Spanish; 1719, Built Presidio San José with 12-man garrison; 1723, Abandoned; 1835, Americans built Fort St Joseph's.

Fort Johnson, South Carolina

Commander: Colonel William Moultrie

British; 1704-1708, Built to protect Charleston; 765, Garrisoned by British with gun-batteries; Occupied by colonists; 12 April 1861, Fired guns at Fort Sumpter to open the US Civil War.
Fort George, Grenada, West Indies British; 1705-1710, Built as a Vauban masonry fortress.
Presidio Albuquerque, New Mexico Spanish; 1706, Built to protect Spanish missions; c1825, Occupied by Mexicans.
Fort St Jean, Louisiana French; 1708, First fort in New Orleans.

Fort Nicholson (Fort Lydius, Fort Lyman, Fort Edward, Fort Stark), New York

Commander: 1755, Colonel William Cockcroft

British; 1709, Built a simple stockade at a portage at the south of Lake George; 1731, Rebuilt as Fort Lydius to protect a trading post; 1745, Destroyed by French; 1755, Rebuilt by Sir William Johnson as Fort Edward with three bastions and full palisade for 300-man garrison with hospital and supply buildings; 1757, Rebuilt after a fire with a new block house nearby; 1766, Abandoned; 1772, House built from fort timbers; 1777, Re-named Fort Stark with new stockade.
Fort Ingoldsby (Fort Winslow, Montressor's Blockhouse, Fort Stillwater), New York British; 1709, Built Fort Ingoldsby; 1756-1758, Built Fort Winslow on same site; 1759-1760, Built Montressor's Blockhouse and barracks; 1777, Americans built Fort Stillwater as a supply depot.
Presidio de San Miguel Mission, New Mexico Spanish; 1710, Fort built into former chapel.
Fort Michipicoten, Ontario French, c1710, Built on Lake Superior to protect French fur trade.
Fort L'Huiltier (Fort Verde), Illinois French, c1710, Built at the junction of Minnesota and Green Rivers. 1739, Destroyed but rebuilt as Fort Verde.
   
Fort Hunter, New York British; 1711, Built to protect Mohawk Indians 12' stockade 150' square with four blockhouses and guns and 30 cabins; 1711, 70-man area garrison nearby and 30-man in fort; 1755, Rebuilt; 1773, Burned;

Fort Louis de la Mobile (Fort Condé de la Mobile, Fort Charlotte, Fort Carlotta, Fort Mobile), Alabama

Commanders: 1779, Bernardo de Gálvez Madrid Cabrera Ramirez y Márquez

French; 1711, Built as Fort Condé de la Mobile after moving garrison from Fort Iberville in Louisiana; 1763, Occupied by British called Fort Charlotte; 1779, Captured by Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez Madrid Cabrera Ramirez y Márquez and called Fort Carlotta; 1783, Ceded to Spain, 1813, Occupied by Americans; 1814, Rebuilt; 1819, Demolished.
Fort Bon Dieu Falls, Louisiana French; 1712, Built on the Red River.
Fort Barnwell, North Carolina British; 1712, Built of wood during a major campaign against the Tuscarora Indians.
Fort Mohawk, Nova Scotia British; 1712-1713, Built by Mohawk Indians under direction of Major Livingstone to counter Miqmaq Indians..

Forteresse de Louisbourg (Fortress of Louisbourg), Nova Scotia

Commanders: 1717-1739, Gouverneur Joseph de St Ovide, Monbeton de Brouillan, 1739, Isaac Louis de Forant, Jean-Baptiste-Louis Duquesnel, 1740, Commander Jean-Baptiste-Louis Duquesnel, Le Prévost, 1749, Gouverneur Charles Des Herbiers de La Ralière, 1751-1753, Gouverneur Jean-Louis de Raymond Comte de Raymond, Charles-Joseph d'Ailleboust, Sieur de la Roque, 1753, Gouverneur Captain Augustin Chevalier de Drucour, Louis De Pont du Chambon

French; 1713, Built as large stone fort to guard access to St Lawrence and Québec; 1719-1745, Built large king's bastion and fortified town as capital of Île Royale; 1734, Lighthouse built; 1740, 47 x 24 pound guns; 13 May 1744, Louisbourg garrison with two ships and 357 Frenchmen attacked captured and burned Fort Canso; 1745, Successful siege by Rear Commodore Peter Warren's naval bombardment and New England colonial troops who turned captured guns on fort, and then occupied fort and outlying gun batteries; 1748, Returned to France by Peace Treaty; 1749, Re-occupied by 1,000-man French garrison; 1758, Fortress still damaged from 1745 siege with strength 5,600 Harbour battery 28 x 42 pounders 2 x 18 pounders (plus 300 naval guns) plus 200-man garrison moat and bastions to land with very large swamp and 4,000 men deployed outside fortress with 29 guns; 2 June 1758, British began siege with 180 ships; 8 June 1758, Admiral Edward Boscawen with 1,842 guns and 13,000 British sailors landed 13,000-man army and c500 guns which surrounded the fortress and were commanded by Major General Jeffrey Amherst, Brigadiers James Wolfe, Charles Lawrence, and Edward Whitmore; 26 July 1758, French capitulated.. (8 August 1758, British also captured St Anne and Spanish Bay (Sydney) and Isle St Jean (PEI) French Lieutenant-Governor at Port la Joie and 500-man garrison (Charlottetown) surrendered); 28 July 1758, Occupied by British and rebuild started; 15 August 1758, Began to deport 4,000 French Acadians; 1761, Occupied and re-built with Citadel Blockhouse by British; 1768, Abandoned.
Fort Christanna, Virginia British; 1714, Built to protect against Tuscarora Indians with stockade and five guns.
Fort Germanna, Virginia British; 1714, German settlement with stockade and blockhouse.

Fort St Jean Baptiste (Fort Les Natchitoches, Fort Claiborne, Post on Cane River), Louisiana

Commander: Antoine Juchereau, de St Denis,

French; 1714, Fortified settlement with fort on Red River Island; c1719, Garrison conducted raid on Spanish mission of San Miguel de Linares de Los Adaes; 1721, Rebuilt due to flooding; 1731, Attacked by Natchez Indians; 1736, Moved to mainland and rebuilt with barracks and block house; 1766, Spanish occupied and re-named Fort les Natchitoches; 1769, Abandoned; 1804, American occupied and named Fort Claiborne palisaded with two barracks and blockhouse.
Presidio Pupo, (St Francis De Puppa, San Francisco De Pupo), Florida Spanish; 1714, Built; 1740, Attacked and destroyed by Georgia militia led by Colonel James Edward Oglethorpe; 1743, Re-built two-story stone tower with eight guns palisaded and moated; 1763, Occupied intermittently by British.
Fort Le Grand Bacoux, Louisiana French; c1715.
Beaufort Fort (Port Royal Fort), South Carolina British; 1715, Palisaded earthwork fort built during the Yamassee Indian War.
Fort St Philippe de Michilimackinac (Fort Michilimackinac), Michigan French; 1715, Built new limestone fort named St Philippe de Michilimackinac palisaded fort witth four blockhouses 18 buildings and six guns; 1760, French abandoned; 1761, British occupied; 2 June 1763, Captured by Ojibwe Indians at start of Pontiac's Indian Rebellion; 1764, English recaptured and rebuilt.

Fort Les Natchez (Fort Rosalie, Fort Panmure, Post at Natchez, Fort Sargent), Mississippi

Commander: 1727, Capitaine Chépart

French; 1715, Fort irregular stockaded earth pentagon with bastion and moat; 1729, Natchez Indians attacked who killed 237 with 227 captured and destroyed fort; 1730, Rescued most captives; 1764, British occupied and renamed Fort Panmure; 1778, Rebuilt by British; 1779, Captured by Spanish; 1781, Recaptured by British; 1782-, Recaptured by Spanish; 1798, Ceded to Americans occupied and renamed Fort Sargent.
Fort Moore, South Carolina British; 1716, Built for protection on Savannah River after Yamassee Indian War 150' square 4.5' planked wall with barracks for 100 men and other buildings; December 1716, Garrisoned with black infantry.
Presidio Nacogdoches (Nuestra Señora de los Dolores de los Tejas, Old Stone Fort), Texas Spanish; 1717; Built c20 kms west of Nacogdoches. 1902, Demolished.
Fort St Francis, Wisconsin French; 1717, Built as a trader's fort; 1760, Abandoned.

Fort Canso, Nova Scotia

Commanders: 1720, Captain Lawrence Armstrong, 1731, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Philipps, 1744, Captain Patrick Heron

British; 1717, Captain Thomas Smart in frigate Squirrel seied all French shipping in area; October 1720, Built log fort with initial garrison to protect the fishermen; 1720-1740, Micmac Indian nusance raids; 1729, 250 fishing ships at Canso; 1734, 160-man garrison living in separate huts; 1735, Block house; 1739, Rebuilt barracks; 1743, Garrison 80-men; 13 May 1744, Louisbourg garrison with two ships and 357 Frenchmen attacked captured and burned Fort Canso.
Fort Crevecoeur, Florida French; 1717, Built covertly; 1718, Abandoned; 1719, Occupied by Spanish.

Old Spanish Fort (Fort de la Pointe, Fort Pascagoula, Krebs' Fort), Mississippi

Commander: 1718, Joseph Simon de la Pointe, c1765, Baron Franz von Krebs

French; 1718, Stockaded house built with tabby-cement and motar walls 15"-30" thick; 1763, Occupied by British; 1779, Occupied by Spanish; 1810, Occupied by Spanish in Baton Rouge Rebellion.
Fort Frederick, Virgin Islands, Caribbean Danish; 1718, Protected colony at Coral Bay St John; 1733, Captured by slaves.

Presidio San Antonio de Bejar (San Antonio de Béxar, Misión San Antonio de Valero, The Alamo), Texas

Commanders: Capitans Garcia, Juan Bustillo y Cevallos, 1726, Pedro de Rivera, Toribio de Urrutia, 1763, Luis Antonio Menchaca, 1805, Manuel Antonio Cordero, 1835, General Martín Perfecto de Cos, 1836, Lieutenant Colonel William B Travis & Colonel James Bowie, 1836, General Antonio López de Santa Anna

Spanish: 5 May 1718, Built to protect five Missions; 1722, Moved closer to Mission San Antonio de Valero (The Alamo); 1726, Garrison 54 men; 1730 Attack by 500 Apache Indians, 1763, Garrison 20 men; 1770, San Antonio de Bejar declared capital of Texas; 1772, Garrison 80 men and commander was Governor of Texas; 1803, Garrison reinforced by Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras; 1806, Alamo incorporated into garrison; 1811, Garrison rebelled; 1812-1813, Garrison in army fighting Gutierrez-Magee expedition; 5-10 December 1835, Battle of Béxar Presidio and Alamo captured by Texan rebels; 23 February 1836, Siege; 6 March 1836, Mexicans capture Alamo; 4 June 1836, Alamo Presidio and Texas surrendered to rebel independence; 1845, Renamed Fort San Antonio.
Presidio Arunado (Arunnado, Ayenlade), Florida Spanish; 1719.

Fort Saint Louis de Carlorette, Texas

 

French; 1719, Built high oval-shaped fort with moat and stockade to trade with Caddo Indians; c1729, Abandoned; 1750, Occupied by Caddo Indians to defeat Spanish; 1762, Occupied by Spanish.
Fort St Pierre des Yazous (Fort St Claude, Fort Snyder), Mississippi French; 1719, Palisaded and four-bastioned; 1729, Attacked and massacred garrison and fort destroyed by Yazoo Indians.
Presidio Fuerte Ariunado, Florida Spanish; 1719
Fort Richmond, Maine British; 1719, Wooden blockhouse; 1723, Enlarged; 1740, Rebuilt.
Fort Ste. Anne (Fort Kaskaskia, Fort Gage, Fort Clark, Post at Kaskaskia), Illinois French; 1719, Wood fort; 1733-1736, Rebuilt 57-acre fort; 1760, Rebuilt with four blockhouses; 1764, Destroyed by French; 1765; British occupied; 1772; British built Fort Gage of stone; 1778, Captured by American George Rogers Clark and renamed Fort Clark; 1802-1807; Garrisoned and renamed Post at Kaskaskia.
Presidio San Carlos Principe d'Asturias (Fort Pickens), Florida Spanish; 1719, Built stockade; 1719, Destroyed by French; 1721, Re-built by Spanish; 1763, British occupied; 1781, Recovered by Spanish; 1793, Re-built; 1812-1814, British occupied; 1814, Destroyed by Americans and renamed Fort Pickens; 1834, Re-built.

Fort de Chartres (Cavendish), Illinois

Commander: 1720, Pierre Duque Sieur de Broisbriant

French; 1720, Capital of French Illinois Territory and built as a palisaded and dry-moated wood fort with bastions and several buildings; 1727, Rebuilt due to flooding; 1732, Rebuilt again due to flooding; 1747, Abandoned for Kaskaskia; 1753, Rebuilt as 4-acre stone fort with 15' high walls constructed away from the river; 1765, Occupied by British and called Fort Cavendish; 1771, Abandoned.
Fort de la Reine (Fort Young), Dominica, West Indies French; 1720, Built wood fort; 1761, Captured by British; 1770, Rebuilt in stone as Fort Young; 1778, Captured by French Marquis de Bouille and renamed Fort de la Reine; January 1784, Returned to British by treaty and renamed; 1805, Failed French attack; 1854, Abandoned.
Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pillar de los Adaes (Presidio Los Adaes, Adais), Louisiana Spanish; 1721, Hexagonal fort 150' sides with several adobe buildings of former mission (abandoned after 1719 French raid); 1729, Capital of Texas and had garrison of 100 men to confront French trade in Texas; 1773, Lost Texan capital status.

Fort Anahuac, Texas

Commanders: 1830, Coronel Juan Davis Bradburn, 1835, Capitan Antonio Tenorio

Spanish; c1721, Small square stone fort with two bastions barracks; 1830, Rebuilt; 1832, Texans battled garrison; 1835, Captured by Texans.

Fort King George, Georgia

Commander: Colonel John Barnwell

British; 1722, Built to stop Spanish raids into Carolina an earthen fort with a three-story cypress blockhouse barracks a guardhouse moat and palisades plus a 100-man company; 1726, Burnt by Indians; 1727; Rebuilt; 1728-1734, Manned as observation post; 1734, Abandoned; 1736, Occupied by Scots and became the settlement of Darien.

Lovewell's Fort, New Hampshire

Commander: Captain Lovewell

British: 1722-1725, Battles with several Indian tribes.
Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa, Florida, Spanish; 1722, Built to replace Santa Maria de Gálvez; 1752, Destroyed by hurricane and abandoned.
Fort Detour a l'Anglais (Fort Sainte. Marie), Lousiana French; 1722, Three earthwork batteries; 1748, Rebuilt as two 30-gun stockades later four square bastions with 19 guns and re-named Fort St Marie.
Fort Ouiatenon, Indiana French; 1722, Fortified log post with French garrison; 1761, Surrendered to British; 1 June 1763, Captured by Miami Kickapoo Mascouten and Wea Indians; 1791, Burned down by Americans.
Fort de la Balise (Fort Isla Real Católica de San Carlos, Fort la Baliza), Louisiana French; 1722, Built six-gun fort with two detached batteries; 1734, Completed with two barracks a cistern and powder magazine; 1742, Rebuilt; 1750, Destroyed by hurricane and abandoned; 1766, Occupied by Spanish who rebuilt Fort Isla Real Católica de San Carlos on new site; 1769, Abandoned due to flooding and returned to rebuilt Fort la Baliza with four guns barracks and hospital plus 12 other buildings; 1778, Destroyed and moved site; 1778, Moved and rebuilt; 1792, Flooded out; 1794, Built two-gun blockhouse and barracks nearby; 1795, Captured by French and recovered by Spanish; 1803, Occupied by Americans; 1813, Rebuilt as a five-gun battery but abandoned then destroyed by British; 1814, Occupied by British; 1815, Abandoned.
Presidio Santa Rosa de Segunza (Fort St Rose, Saint Rose Battery), Florida Spanish; 1723, Spanish re-occupied northwestern Florida and established island colony and fort; 1750, Garrison 86 men; 1752, Destroyed by hurricane; c1771, Rebuilt by British and renamed Fort St Rose; 1814, Rebuilt by Americans.

Les Forts d'Orleans, Louisiana

Commander: 1723, Etienne de Bourgmond

French; 1723, Palisade built around New Orleans with block houses at corners; 1728, Abandoned; 1732-1794, Walled powder magazine built but burned down; 1754-1760, Moated embankment and nine bastions added.

Fort Orléans, Missouri

Commander: Etienne Venyard, Sieur de Bourgmont

French; 1723, Built to deny Spanish access to Missouri River. 1755, Rebuilt.

Fort Zeller, Pennsylvania

Commander: Heinrich Zeller

Colonial British; 1723, Built as thick-walled two-srory masonry house for defence against Indians; 1745, Rebuilt
Fort Oswego (Fort Pepperrell), New York British; 1724, Blockhouse added to trading post; 1727, Built 4' thick stone-walled fort; 1743, Built stone wall with corner-bastions or blockhouses around trading post and re-named Fort Pepperrell; 1755, Also built Forts Ontario and George at Oswego; 1755, Attacked and destroyed by Major General Marquis de Moncalm; 1759, Brigadier Prideaux and Sir William Johnson's expedition against Fort Niagara was supported by British force reoccupying Oswego.

Fort Dummer, Vermont

Commander: Captain Timothy Dwight

British; 1724, Wooden stockade 180' square with 12 guns 55-man garrison; 1724, Unsuccessfully attacked by Iroquois Indians before stockade completed; 1763, Abandoned and dismantled.
Fort les Oumas, Louisiana French; c1725, Wood fort on Mississippi River.
Presidio Santa Anna, Florida Spanish; c1725.
Presidio Santa Rosa del Sacrament, Mexico Spanish; 1725, Built; 1772, Moved to strengthen defence against Indian raids.

Presidio La Bahía, Texas

Commander: 1724, Diego Ramon, Capitans 1736, Joaquin Orobio y Basterra, 1749, Manuel Ramirez, 1813, Luciano Garcia, 1835, Teniente Coronel Sandoval

Spanish; 1726, Moved initial fort inland because of Karankawa Indian trouble and built with stone; 1729, Moved to prevent British and French entry to Spanish territory; c1779-1781, Fought British to support Americans; 7 November 1812, Americans occupied presidio with garrison deployed outside; 14 November 1812-19 February 1813, Failed siege; August 1813, Spanish occupied; October 1821, Captured by Americans but recaptured by Mexicans;
Fort La Joye (Fort Amherst), Prince Edward Island French; 1726, Consisted of barracks, powder magazine, storage buildings, and chapel; 1745, Captured by Massachusetts militia; 1748, Returned to French; 1758, Surrendered to British and rebuilt as Fort Amherst; 1768, Abandoned.
Presidio La Bahia del Espiritu Santo, Texas Spanish; 1726, Built on site of French Fort St Louis on Matagorda Bay; 1772, Moved to Guadalupe River then San Antonio River (Goliad) to strengthen defence against Indian raids; 1775, Garrison 51 men,

Fort Depuis, Pennsylvania

Commander: Samuel Dupuis

British; 1727, Built as a stone house by Nicholas Depuy; 1755-1758, Samuel Dupuis' house was palisaded and garrisoned by the Pennsylvania colonial militia.

Fort Beauharnois (Fort la Jonquiére), Minnesota

Commanders: Michel Guignas, Nicolas de Gonnor

French; 1727, Built 100' square palisaded fort to protect settlers against Sioux Indians; 1732, Re-built and possibly re-named Fort la Jonquiére; c1755, Abandoned to send troops East to fight British.
Fort Gorhamtown, Maine British; 1728, Blockhouse.
Fort Tonicas (St. Reyne aux Tonicas), Louisiana French; c1728, a small fort was built north of Baton Rouge.
Fort La Point Coupeé (Post Punta Cortada), Louisiana French; 1729, Small stockaded fort; 1766, Spanish occupied renamed Post Punta Cortada then a quadrangle with four bastions and several buildings.
Fort Herkimer, New York Dutch; 1730, Stockaded church; 1 August 1778, Attacked by Indians.
Fort Les Oumas, Louisiana French; 1730, Built to dominate the Choctaw Tonicas Colapissas and Oumas Indians.
Presidio San José del Cabo, Baha California, Mexico Spanish; 1730 Built to limit Baha Indians; 1734-1744, Pericué and Guaicurvo Indian rebellion; 1736, Under Presidio Loreto command; 1745,

Fort St Pierre, Ontario

Commander: Captain Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye

French; 1731, Trading post.
Fort Prince Of Wales, Manitoba British; 1731, Begining of 40-year construction of large stone fort with four bastions; 1782, Surrendered to French who abandoned it after three days.
Fort St Frédéric (Fort Amherst, Grenadier's Fort, Fort Crown Point), New York French; 1731, Built 300' square 62-gun pentagonal-stone fort with stone tower and barracks as French Territorial capital; 1759, Destroyed to prevent British capture; 1759, British built large five-bastion pentagon stone fort with subordinate Grenadier's Fort and two redoubts; 1773, Fire damage; 1775-1777, American occupation.
Fort Hite (John Hite's Fort), Virginia Colonial British; 1732, Joist Hite built settler log fort south of Winchester.
Fort St Charles, Minnesota French; 1732, Built 100' x 60' stockade with bastions and buildings.

Fort Lewis (Bellefont), Virginia

Commanders: 1732, Captain John Lewis, 1752, Major Andrew Lewis

British; 1732, Built as stone house and used by colonial militia for defence against Indians; 1752, Rebuilt by same family.

Fort Baker (Baker's Station, Fort Cresap), West Virginia

Colonial British; 1732, Built as a stockaded fort, with block houses joined by palisades.

Noble Jones' Fort (Fort Wimberly), Georgia

Commanders: 1733, General James Edward Oglethorpe, 1734, Captain Noble Jones

British; 1733, General James Edward Oglethorpe built small wooden blockhouse; 1741, Replaced with tabby house made of ground oyster shells, sand, and water 30' square with four brass guns; c1755, Unsuccessfully attacked by Spanish and Indians.
Fort Cahokia (Fort Bowman), Illinois French; 1733, Built trading post; 1765, British occupied; 1778, Captured by Americans; 1780, Failed British attack.
Fort Argyle, Georgia British; 1733, Palisaded fort defending Savannah and South Carolina from Indian raids; 1747, Abandoned.
Fort Cape Girardeau (Presidio Lorimont), Missouri French; 1733, Trading post; 1793, Occupied by Spanish who built fort named Presidio Lorimont.
San Marcos (Fort St Mark, Marion, St Francis Barracks), Florida Spanish; 1734, Built as convent; 1765, Captured by British converted to fort; 1783, Recovered by Spanish as fort; 1821, Occupied by Americans; 1832, Re-built.

Presidio Cabo San Lucas

Commanders: Capitans Pedro Alvarez de Acebedo

Spanish; 1734, Built to protect against pirates with garrison 35 men dispersed in three forts (immediate cause was Indian uprising against mission prohibition of poligamy); 1734, Pericué and Guaicurvo Indian rebellion; 1735, Failed Pericué Indian attack; 1744, Rebellion ends; 1767, Almost all Indians dead of European diseases or war.
Fort Prince Frederick, South Carolina British; 1734, Built 125' x 75' tabby-cement fort with 4' walls on three sides and barracks plus powder magazine.

Fort Noble, Maine

Commander: Colonel Arthur Noble

British; 1734, Square palisade with two blockhouses and barracks.
Presidio Arroyo del Cibolo (El Fuerte de Santa del Cibolo, El Fuerte de Santa Cruz, El Fuerte del Zivolo), Texas Spanish; 1734, Built to protect against Indian raids; 1737, Abandoned after Apache Indian attacks; 1771, Re-established as fort to strengthen defence against Indian raids; 1771, Garrison 50 men; 1779, Tasked with mail relay; 1782, Abandoned and destroyed.
Fort St Frederic (Fort Crown Point), New York 1734, Built by French; 1759, Abandoned and destroyed; 1760, Rebuilt by General AmherSt
Fort Aux Rosseaux, Manitoba French; 1734, Built on the Red River.
Fort Barrington (Fort Howe), Florida British; c1735, Built against Spanish and Creek Indians; 12 March 1778, Captured by Americans. 1778, Abandoned.

Fort Tombeche (Fort York, Fort Confederación, Fort Tombigbee), Alabama

Commander: 1735, Sieur de la Bienville

French; 1735, Built supply depot and trading post; 1761, Occupied by British and re-named Fort York; 1768, Abandoned; 1783, Occupied by Spanish and re-named Fort Confederación; 1795, Occupied by Americans and re-named Fort Tombigbee; 1799, Abandoned; 1802, Treaty with Choctaw Indians.
Great Meadows Fort, New Hampshire British; c1735.
Fort Ste Genevieve (Fort St Joachim), Missouri French; 1735; Built as the first permanent settlement in the area; 1785, Local traders also built Fort St. Joachim and rebuilt at least twice before 1804.

Fort Wormsloe (Skidaway Island Fort), Georgia

Commander: Noble Jones

British; 1735. Built as protection against the Spanish.

Fort Jones, Georgia

Commander: Noble Jones

British; 1735. Built as protection against the Spanish.
Fort Keene, New Hampshire British; 1736, Built double-stockaded town fort 90' square with barracks and wells; 1746, Attacked and burnt by Indians; 1747, Abandoned.
Fort William (Fort Prince William), Georgia British; 1736, Built by General James Edward Oglethorpe on Cumberland Island to guard St Mary's River; 13 July 1742, Unsuccessfully attacked by 28 Spanish ships plus land force.
Fort Darien (Fort at New Inverness), Georgia British; 1736, Built by General James Edward Oglethorpe with two bastions and 2 half bastions, and was defended by several cannons; 7 July 1742, Battle of Bloody Marsh truncated Spanish plans against Georgia and eliminated the frequent harassing attacks.against the fort.
Fort Frederica, Georgia British; 1736, Built as defence against Spanish; 1742, Attacked by Spanish; 1743, Re-built with four bastions in tabby-cement (ground oyster shells and sand); 1748, War of Jenkin's Ear ended Spanish aggression; 1749, Abandoned.
Presidio Ste Genevieve, Missouri Spanish; c1736, Built on Mississippi River across the river from Kaskaskia and moved due to floods.
Fort Augusta (Fort Cornwallis), Georgia British; 1736, Built by General James Edward Oglethorpe; 1767, Abandoned; 1776, Occupied by Americans; 1779, Occupied by British renamed Fort Cornwallis; 1780, Both Americans and British recaptured fort; 1781, British surrendered to Colonel Harry Lee; 1786, Demolished.
Fort St Andrew, Georgia British; 1736.
Fort George (Fort St George), Florida British; 1736, Built by General James Edward Oglethorpe as earthwork in a palisade as headquarters for his Florida invasion.
Amelia Island Blockhouse, Florida British; 1736, Built by General James Edward Oglethorpe in preparation to invade Spanish Florida; 1739, Attacked by Spanish.
Fort Hinsdale (Reverend Ebenezer Hinsdell Garrison, Daniel Shattuck's Garrison, Fort Shattuck), New Hampshire British,; 1736, Built block house; 1741, Fortified with connecting palisade to John Evans' Garrison block house.
Delegal's Fort {Fort St Simon Soldiers Fort), Georgia British; 1738, Built by South Carolina militia; c1740, Renamed Fort St Simon by British Colonel Oglethorpe; 28 June 1742, Siege by Spanish Don Manuel de Montiano with force of 51 ships and 5,000 men; 5 July 1742, Captured by Spanish while Oglethorpe spiked guns; c10 July 1742, Spanish used fort as base to attack Fort Frederica then burned Fort St Simon after attack on Frederica.
Fort Popple (Saint David's Fort), Bermuda, West Indies British; 1738, Stone fort with nine guns.
Swanzey Garrison Houses (Captain Nathaniel Hammond's Garrison, Meeting-House Hill Fort), New Hampshire British; 1738, Built palisaded forts; 1747, Abandoned after several Indian attacks.
Fort Burke, Massachusetts British; 1738, Stockaded blockhouse 100' square with 12' palisades four watchtowers a two-gun blockhouse and eight barracks for militia; 1738, Attacked by Indians; 1747, Attacked by Indians; 1754, Re-built as a palisaded complex of eight houses or barracks and was used as a town refuge.
Fort La Reine, Manitoba French; 1738, Built on the Assiniboine River.
El Pueblo de Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mosé (Moosa, Presidio Mosé, Negro Fort), Florida Spanish; 1738, Settlement of freed Africans; 1740, Captured and destroyed by General James Edward Oglethorpe in failed Attack on St Augustine; 1740, Re-built; 1756, Re-built; 1762, Connected by defensive wall to Fort Ayachin; 1763, Abandoned by Africans who migrated to Cuba; 1775, British destroyed fort; 1797, Spanish re-built; 1808, Re-built.

Fort l'Assumption (Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas, Fort des Ecores, Fort Adams, Fort Pike), Tennessee

Commander; 1739, Jean Baptiste le Moyne de Bienville, 1795, Don Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, 1797, Captain Issac Guion, 1803, Captain Zebulon M Pike

French; 1739, Built against Chickasaw Indians with 1,200-man garrison; 1795, Spanish built Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas; 1797, Abandoned by Spanish and occupied and rebuilt by Americans as Fort Adams; 1803, Renamed Fort Pike.
Fort Moosa (Mose, Negro Fort), Florida Spanish; 1739, Built to house escaped African slaves and protect settlement El Pueblo de Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mosé; 1740, Destroyed by British but rebuilt; 1763, Africans migrated to Cuba; 1775, Destroyed by British; 1797, Rebuilt by Spanish; 1808, Rebuilt by Spanish.
Fort Poza, Florida British; 1740, Five-gun battery used in St Augustine attack.
Fort at Number 4 (Fort Stephens), New Hampshire British; 1740, Built; 1743, Housed 10 families enclosed in a stockade with a guard tower; 1747, Attacked by French.

Fort San Nicholas, Florida

Commander: Gobernadore Don Manuel de Monteano

Spanish; 1740, Block house; 1784, Re-built 100' square moat; 1796, Attacked by Americans; c1797, Re-built; 1812, Captured and burned by Americans; c1813, Re-built.

Cresap's Fort (Thomas Cresap's Fort), Maryland

Commander: Thomas Cresap

British; 1740, Trading post; 1754, Stockaded and fortified for Major General Braddock's expedition; c1756-1758, Attacked by Indians; c1758, Abandoned.

Fort at Number 4, New Hampshire

Commander: 1747, Captain Phineas Stevens

British; 1740, Built by Farnsworth brothers as a square of interconnected houses, enclosed in a stockade with a guard tower; 1744, Attacked by Abenaki Indians; 1746, Abandoned; 1747, Occupied by Capt. Phineas Stevens and 30 militia and unsuccessfully attacked by French and Abenaki Indians; 1756-1781, Garrisoned by colonial militia; 1759, connected by new road to Lake Champlain; 1777, Used as a base for the Battle of Bennington.
Fort Bourbon, Manitoba French; c1741, Built on Cedar Lake at mouth of Saskatchewan River.

Fort Venango (John Fraser's Post, Vernango, d'Anjou, Machault, Fort Franklin), Pennsylvania

British; 1741, Fortified trading post; 1754, Captured by French with incomplete construction of Fort d'Anjou; 1755-1759, French built Fort Machault; 1760, Rebuilt as British Fort Venango; 1763, Captured and burned down by Pontiac; Americans built Fort Franklin.

Presidio de San Pedro de la Conquista del Pitic (Presidio El Pitic), Baha California, Mexico

Commanders: 1741, Don Agustín de Vildósola, 1772, Don Pedro de Corbalán

Spanish; 1741, Built as military prison; 1750, Authorised as presidio; 1772, Built canal for farmers.
Fort Lee, Massachusetts British; 1742, Major earthworks; c1793, American re-built into star shape; 1813-1815, Garrisoned against British.

Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrenate, Arizona

Commanders: 1775-1776, Capitan Francisco Tovar, 1776-1778, Capitan Francisco Ignacio de Trespalacio, 1778, Lieutenant Colonel Pedro Fages

Spanish; 1742, Sonora, Mexico; 1775, Built new presidio in Huachuca Mountains Arizona; garrison 56 cavalry men; 7 July 1776, Apache Indian battle garrison 26; August 1776, Garrison 83 men; 1777, Indian battle; 1778, Two Indian battles; 1779, Garrison 46; April 1780, Apache-Pima Indian battle; 1780, Presidio abandoned garrison moved back to Sonora, Mexico.
Fort Le Corne (Fort à la Corne, Fort St Louis), Manitoba French; 1742, at the Forks of North & South Saskatchewan Rivers
Fort Le Pas (Fort Pasquia, Paskoya), Manitoba French; c1742, Built at The Pas.
Fort Sewell, Massachusetts British; c1743.
Fort Dauphin, Manitoba French; 1743, Attacked by Indians and burned; c1744, Re-built.
Fort William Augustus, Nova Scotia British; 1744, Built as quadrangle; 1744, Attacked by French; 1745, Block house added; 1745, Abandoned.

Old Fort, New Hampshire

Commander: Captain Phineas Stevens

British; 1744, Built 180' long with 'log flankers at corners; 1747, Attacked unsuccessfully by French and Indians.
Fort Sheldon, Massachusetts British; 1744, Built Deacon Ebenezer Jr Sheldon's fortified garrison house; 1746, Attacked by Indians; 1754-1760, Used by the colonial militia.
Winchester Garrison Houses, New Hampshire British; 1744, Built town with palisaded homes; 1746, Attacked by Indians; 1746, Abandoned.
Daniel How's Fort (Westmoreland Forts), New Hampshire British; c1744.
Fort Massachusetts, Massachusetts British; 1744, Stockaded 60' square blockhouse on stone; 1746, Attacked and destroyed by French and Indians; 1747, Re-built to block French and Dutch expansion; 1748, Attacked by Indians; 1754-1760, Garrisoned by Massachusetts; 1764, Supported new settlers into Ohio.

Fort de Cavagnial (Fort de la Trinité, Fort Cavagnolle), Kansas

Commander: François Coulon de Villiers

French; 1744, a small but substantial fort with a surrounding stockade of stout piles and with bastions at each of the four stockade corners; c1750, Re-built 80' square palisade with bastions; c1760, Abandoned; 1764, Occupied by Spanish.
Fort Galphin (Fort Dread-
naught), South Carolina
British; c1744, Built as a Indian trading post on the Ogeechee River; c1774, Built a stockaded brick building; 1781, Attacked by Henry Lee.
Fort Pelham, Massachusetts British; 1745, Palisaded acre-size parallelogram with four watchtowers surrounded by a ditch; 1754-1760, Garrisoned by Massachusetts; 1764, Supported new settlers into Ohio.

Fort Swatara (Captain Smith's Fort, Heydrich's Fort), Pennsylvania

Commander: c1745, Captain Johann Peter Heyderich

British; c1745, Built as blockhouse for neighbours' defence against Indians.
Plaquemines Bend (Fort San Felipe and Fort Bourbon, Fort Jackson), Louisiana French; 1746; Spanish; 1792, Built a pair of forts on either side of of the Mississippi River Fort Bourbon being a redoubt; 1795, Fort Bourbon was destroyed by a hurricane and re-built; 1814-1815, Fort Bourbon used by British army in attack on New Orleans; 1822, Americans replaced Fort Bourbon with a star-shaped pentagonal fortress with barracks for 500 men with 20' thick walls 25' above the surrounding moat.
Fort Maurepas, Manitoba French; 1747, Burned down; 1748, Re-built; 1763, Burned down.
Fort Franklin (Captain Heart's fort, Snydersville), Pennsylvania British; January 1756, Built with four bastions with small cannon near Snydersville although poorly constructed (Benjamin Franklin was the Pennsylvania Militia commander during much of this period he laid out many of the colony's defences and organised the militia to garrison and patrol against the French and Indians); November 1756, Abandoned; 1757, Garrisoned and re-built; 1787, Re-built as a 30 x 36' strong log house surrounded by pickets; 1805-1819, Used as a jail.

Fort Canajoharie (Cannatchoeari, Hendrick), New York

Commander: 1755, Major General Sir William Johnson

British; 1747, Fort Canajoharie was a 150' square stockade with two block houses built to protect Mohawks from French Indian-allies; 1755-1760, Rebuilt as Fort Hendrick a 25-man stockade called an Indian castle.
Fort Warden, West Virginia British Colonial; c1747, a small fort; 1758, Attacked, and burnt by Indians after the defenders were killed.
Friend Cox's Fort (Fort Cox), West Virginia British; c1748, Built settler blockhouse with a stockade. 1756-1760, Used by militia.

Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola, (Presidio San Miguel, Mission de San Miguel, Saint Michael, St George), Florida

Commanders: Coronels y Gobernadores 1757, Miguel Roman de Castilla y Lugo, 1761, Diego Ortiz Parrilla

Spanish; 1748, Fortified mission de San Miguel eight-man blockhouse; 1756, Created as a square stockade about 700 by 400 feet, with 21 guns, and renamed Presidio de San Miguel de las Amarillas from mission after colony of Punta Sigüenza on Santa Rosa Island migrated to mainland after 1752 hurricane; 1757, Re-named Presidio de San Miguel de Panzacola or Fort Panzacola; c1760, Defeated attacks by Creek Indians; 1761, Reinfocements arrived; 1763, Site occupied by British and re-built as Fort Barrancas; 1781, Occupied by Spanish; 1821, Occupied by Americans.
Fort Sellers, West Virginia Colonial British; c1748, Built by George Washington.
Fort Johnston (Johnston's Fort), North Carolina British; 1748, Small wood fort with four bastions to protect against Spanish pirates; 1748, Attacked and destroyed by Spanish fleet; 1754, Re-built star-shaped stone fort with four bastions and dry moat; 1773, Re-built; 1775, Destroyed by Americans and abandoned; 1778, Re-built with brick; 1781, Captured by British but abandoned; 1794-1800, Re-built; 1806, eight heavy guns; 1881, Closed.
Fort Bear Inlet (Bear Island Fort), North Carolina British; 1749, Built to protect settlers from Spanish.
John Kilbourn Garrison, New Hampshire British; 1749; Palisaded settler home; 1755, Attacked by Indians.

Fort Johnson, New York

Commanders: 1749, Colonel William Johnson, Colonel John Johnson

British; 1749, Sir William Johnson's fortified stone house; 1755, Built palisade and two added blockhouses.
Fort Churchill, Manitoba British; 1749, Rebuilt.

Samuel Bigham's Fort (Fort Bingham), Pennsylvania

Commander: 1749, Samuel Bigham

British; 1749, Stockaded blockhouse; 1756, Attacked and burned by Indians; 1760, Rebuilt and re-named Fort Bingham; 1760, Attacked and burned by Indians.
Micheal Harness' Fort, West Virginia British; 1749, Built settler fort; 1756, Garrisoned with 50 men.
Fort Granville, North Carolina British; 1749, Built to protect settlers from Spanish; 1757, Enlarged wooden fort; c1777, Re-built; 1794, Blockhouse added; c1814, Abandoned.
Fort Mount Pleasant (Fort at Wills Creek, Post at Wills Creek, Fort Cumberland), Maryland British; 1749, Built as fortified trading post; 1754, Lieutenant Colonel George Washington's refuge after his surrender at Fort Necessity; 1755, Rebuilt as large log fort with storage magazine;
Bayou des Allemands Post, Lousiana French; 1749, Stockaded blockhouse protecting German settlers from Indians; 1766, Occupied by Spanish.
Fort La Presentation (Fort Oswegatchie, Ogdensburg), New York French; 1749, Stone house and small picket fort with one bastion; 1749, Attacked and burned; 1751, Re-built palisaded fort 70' square with four bastions wide moat entrenchment and interior parapet; 1760, Captured by British and re-named Fort Oswegatchie; 1796, Abandoned.
Fort Christiansvaern, St Croix Island Danish; 1749, Built at Christiansted St Croix; 1771, Rebuilt; 1917, US Occupied.
Fort George (Halifax Citadel), Nova Scotia British; 1749, Built to protect settlement; 1776-1789, Citadel Blockhouse added to protect 14-gun battery; 1856, Built large star-shap stone fortress and garrisoned to protect against American invasion; 1906, Occupied by Canada.

Fort de La Présentation (Fort Oswegatchie), New York

French; 1749, Built a mission fort near the junction of the Oswegatchie and St Lawrence Rivers; 1755-1759, Manned by a large number of Iroquois Indians loyal to France; 1760, Ceded to Britain and re-named Fort Oswegatchie; 1796, Ceded to Americans.
Fort Gloninger, Pennsylvania British; 1749, Built a good specimen of the solid architecture of the early days with its piked roof and original port holes for windovs - in the Lebanon Valley.

Fort Rouillé (Fort Toronto), Ontario

Ordered by Marquis de La Jonquière, Gouverneur

French; c1749, Built as a 180' sq palisaded fort with a bastion at each of its four corners, and containing five main buildings a trading post. 1759, Abandoned.

Fort Edwards (Joseph Edwards' Fort), West Virginia

Commander: Captain Joseph Edwards

Colonial British; 1749, Built as two-story log house and stockade as defence against Indians; 1756-1758, Unsuccessfully attacked by Ohio Indians.
Fort Toulouse aux Alibamons (Fort Jackson), Alabama French; 1749-1751, Rebuilt; 1763, British occupied; c1765, Attacked by Creek Indians British abandoned; 1814, Americans occupied Rebuilt and made peace with Creek Indians; 1819, Abandoned.
Fort Ohio, West Virginia Colonial British; 1749-1754, Block house 45' x 25' built as trading post by Ohio Company. 1754, Breastworks and magazine added but abandoned for Fort Cumberland.
Fort Edward, Nova Scotia British; 1750, Block house and earthworks; 1755, Used to organise the Expulsion of the Acadians; 1850, Abandoned by British; 1914-1919, Used as a training depot for Canadian and British soldiers.
Fort Rouillé (Fort Toronto), Ontario French; 1750, Built; 1759, Burned to prevent British capture although seized by Sir William Johnson after he had captured Fort Niagara.

Fort Klock, New York

Commander: Johannes Klock

British; 1750, Stone house; 1780, Sir John Johnson and Joseph Brant led a raid that was defeated by General Robert Van Rensselaer at the Klock Fort.
Fort Richmond, Manitoba British; 1750, Built to defend trade became Hudson's Bay Company post.
Fort Lullier, Minnesota French; 1750.
Whale Bay Battery, Bermuda British; c1750, Built of stone the battery contains store, barracks and magazine rooms to defend the channel.
Samuel Brink's Fort (Fort Shipeconck), New Jersey Colonial British; 1750, a militia fort 50' x 24' and a 59' palisade; 1756-c1785, Probably located near Mashipacong Island.
Fort Lullier, Minnesota French; c1750.
Fort Lawrence, Nova Scotia British; 1750, Two blockhouses built on the Missaguash River to keep the French in Acadia (New Brunswick); 1756, Destroyed by British.

Fort Beauséjour (Fort Cumberland), New Brunswick

Commander: 1749, Chevalier Louis-François Chapt De Louis La Corne, 1751, Captain St Ours, c1755, Captain Louis du Port Chambon Sieur de Vergor, Lieutenant Le Loutre

French; 1750, Chevalier La Corne built a pentagonal fort; May 1751, Expanded as ordered by Governor of New France de la Jounquiere; 16 June 1755, Captured by British Lieutenant Colonel Monckton after a two-week siege; 8 October 1755, Governor Lieutenant Colonel Charles Lawrence forced 6,800 Acadians into 24 ships and they were transported to Louisiana, Caribbean, Europe, etc; 12 October 1756, Demolished by British; 1776, Attacked by American sympathisers; 1812, Re-built and garrisoned; 1835, Abandoned.
Fort Robinson, Pennsylvania British; 1750, Block house and stockade for settler protection; July 1756, Attacked by Indians; November 1756, Attacked by Indians; 10 July 1763, Attacked by Indians; 16 July 1763, Attacked by Indians;
Fort Tigouyou, Lousiana French; 1750, Small earthen redoubt.
Ellison's Fort, New Jersey Colonial British; 1750, a two-story stone house used by the colonial militia.

Fort Wagner, New York

Commander: Captain Peter Wagner

British; 1750, Stone section of house was stockaded; c1776, Palisaded; 1780, Unsuccessfully attacked.

Fort du Portage (Fort Little Niagara, Fort Schlosser), New York

Commander: 1760, Captain Joseph Schlosser

French; 1750, Built on Niagara River rapids as stockaded barracks and blockhouse; 1760, Rebuilt as square earthwork with four bastions; 1813, Burned by British.

Fort Pickawillany, Ohio

Commander: 1750, George Croghan

British; 1750, a stockade was built around the two-story main building with cabins for traders and Miami Indians on the inside of the high wall of split logs and some on the outside. 1 June 1752, Attacked and destroyed by French and Ottawa and Ojibway Indians

Fort Sandusky (Sandeski, Fort Wyandot, Junandot), Ohio

French; 1751, Built on site of former British trading post; 1754, Rebuilt on other side of Bay and renamed Fort Wyandot; 1761, Occupied by British; 16 May 1763, Attacked & seized by Wyandot Indians & Burned by Pontiac.

Fort Gaspereau (Fort Monckton), New Brunswick

Commander: 1755, Captain Villeray

French; 1751, Built as a fortified warehouse with a palisaded earthwork, measuring 60m square with a blockhouse at the four corners surrounded by a ditch and manned by a small garrison to defend Acadia with Fort Beauséjour; 1755, Surrendered to the British Colonel John Winslow after the fall of the nearby Fort Beauséjour and re-named Fort Monckton and manned with a British garrison; 1756, Attacked by Mi'kmaq Indians and abandoned.

Fort de Repentigny

Commander: Louis de Gardeur Sieur de Repentigny

French; 1751, Built to protect French fur trade; 1752, Captured by British and accidently destroyed by fire.
Blockhouse Châteauguay, Québec British; 1751, Built; 1762, Surrendered.
Fort Hopewell, West Virginia Colonial British; c1752.
Fort Bellows, New Hampshire British; 1752, Palisaded L-shaped log house with one gun.
Presidio de Nuestra Señora de las Caldas de Guajoquilla (San Elizario Presidio), Texas Spanish; 1752, Built at Jiménez Chihuahua Mexico with thick adobeqv walls included quarters for four officers, barracks for forty-three soldiers, guardhouses, corrals, storerooms, and a chapel; 1789, Moved up the Rio Grande to the hacienda of Tiburcios to protect the river settlements of Ysleta and Socorro and establish a colony of pacified Apaches; 1846, Deserted.
Fort Lowther, Pennsylvania British; 1752; Built with breastworks in Carlisle by Colonel John Stanwix in Cumberland County.
Fort Duquesne, Minnesota French; 1752, Built 120' x 80' log fortified trading post.
Fort Frankfort (Fort Shirley), Maine British; 1752, Built two palisaded blockhouses and barracks; 1754-1760, Garrisoned by Massachusetts; 1764, Supported new settlers into Ohio.

Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac, Arizona

Commander: c1775, Capitan Don Juan Bautista de Anza

Spanish; June 1752, Built following Pima Indian uprising with 50-man garrison; 1775, Garrison 46 men; 1776, Abandoned garrison moved to Tucson; 1787, Re-garrisoned; 1821, Occupied by Mexico; 1848, Abandoned after Apache attack.
Fort Le Boeuf (de la Riviere aux Boeuf), Pennsylvania French; 1753, Built as log stockade with four bastions guard house chapel etc; 1759, Abandoned; 1760, Occupied by British; 1763, Burned by Pontiac.
Fort Prince George, South Carolina British; 1753, Built as protection from Spanish and French; 1756-1759, Many battles with Cherokee Indians.

Croghan's Fort (Aughwick Fort, Fort Shirley), Pennsylvania

Commander: 1753, Captain George Croghan, c1756, Captain Hugh Mercer

Colonial British; 1753, Built a strong palisaded stone house on the high bank of Fort Run; 1756, Enlarged and stockaded as a trading house or stockade for a 75-man garrison of militia; 1757, Abandoned due to the poor location.

Fort Presque Isle (de la Presqu'Isle du Lac Erie), Pennsylvania

Commander: 1760, Colonel Henry Bouquet

French; 1753, Built 120'-square at start of Seven Years' War; 1759, Abandoned by French and burned; 1760, Rebuilt by British; 1763, Burned by Pontiac; 1795, Blockhouse built.

Fort Bigham ( Fort Mcalister), Pennsylvania

Commander: Alexander McAlister

British; 1754, Built as large cabin surrounded by a stockade. 11 June 1756, Attacked captured and burned by Indians with 23 peole killed scalped or kidnapped as slaves - and carried off a great deal of beef they had killed.

Fort Western, Maine,

Commander: Captain James Howard

British; 1754, Built and garrisoned as a fortified storehouse with wood bastion and walls and one gun; 1767, Garrison disbanded; 1775, Colonel Benedict Arnold assembled here for his failed attack on Québec City in December 1775.
John Kuykendall's Fort (Kirkendall), West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built settler two-story log house with a stockade.

Fort Vause, Virginia

Commander: Captain Ephraim Vause

Colonial British; 1754, Built as a 15' high earthwork around a settler's home and garrisoned by 70 men as defence against Indians; 1756, Attacked and burned by Indians who captured prisoners; 1756, Rebuilt.
Fortaleza de Honduras, Belize British; 1754, Built log palisade and militia fort after several Spanish attacks.
William Warden's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built settler fort; 1756, Burned by Indians.
John Mendinall's Fort (Mendenhall), West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built settler fort; 1756, Used by colonial militia.
William Patterson's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built settler fort; 1757, Garrisoned by colonial militia.
Stephen Ruddle's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built settler fort; 1756, Battled with Indians nearby.
Fort Shobe, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, a small stockade.
Thomas Parker's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built stockaded blockhouse.
Homer's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built settler fort on the Cacapon River; 1756, Attacked by Indians.

Fort Prince George (Trent's Fort, du Quesne, Fort Duquesne, Fort Mercer, Fort Pitt, Dunmore, Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania

Commanders: Captain Trent, 1754, Captain Contrecoeur, 1759, Colonel Hugh Mercer, 1764, Colonel Henry Bouquet

British; February 1754, Incomplete large fort with external cabins and gardens built by Virginians for the The Ohio Company; April 1754, Captured by French renamed du Quesne and eventually rebuilt with four bastions with guns a 12' high stockade two additional breastworks and a ditch with buildings storage and powder magazines where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers form the Ohio; 28 May 1754, Failed attack by Major George Washington; 9 July 1755, Failed Attack by Major General Edward Braddock at disastrous Battle of Monongahela; 14 September 1758, Failed quick attack by British; 25 November 1758, Burnt by French but captured by British Brigadier John Forbes with 5,000 men and re-built nearby as Fort Pitt with large pentagonal fort in brick surrounded by breastworks and redoubt (to become Pittsburgh); 6 August 1759, Garrison reduced to 350 men; 1759-1760, Temporary Fort Mercer built nearby; October 1761, Rebuilt; 27 May-9 August 1763, Defeated two-month siege in Pontiac's War after Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated Indians at Battle of Bushy Run; 1764, Five blockhouses built outside fort; 1772, Abandoned and sold; 1777, Occupied by Americans as a Continental headquarters by General Edward Hand; 1792, Abandoned.

Fort Morrison, Massachusetts

British; 1754, Built as Indian defence.

Joseph George's Fort, West Virginia

Colonial British; 1754, Settlers' stockaded fort.

Fort Necessity, Pennsylvania

Commander: Lieutenant Colonel George Washington

British; May 1754, Built by Lieutenant Colonel George Washington as circular ditched and stockaded fort after failed attack on Fort du Quesne to control Ohio River valley; 4 July 1754, Surrendered to French and destroyed.

Fort St Leon, Louisiana

French; 1754, Designed by De Verges and garrisoned; 1792, Abandoned, 1808, Re-built.
Fort George, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, a small stockade.
Fort Deshler, Pennsylvania British; c1754, Built on Coplay Creek and used by Pennsylvania colonial militia.
Fort Halifax, (Fort Prevost, Fort Wayne), Georgia British; 1754.
Samuel Bingaman's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1754, Built as a strong log cabin; 1755, Attacked by seven Indians but Bingaman killed five.
Captain William Forman's Fort (Furman), West Virginia British; 1754, Built settler fort and stockade.

Fort Chambers, Pennsylvania

Commander: Benjamin Chambers

British; 1754, Built as stone house surrounded by stockade with two guns.
Fort Redstone (Redstone Fort, Fort Burd), Pennsylvania British; 1754, Built as Virginian militia supply base but destroyed by French; 1759, Re-built as Fort Burd; 1763, Abandoned.

Fort Neally, West Virginia

Colonial British; c1754, Built militia stockaded fort.

Lewis Stephen's Fort (Old Stone Fort), Virginia

Commander: Ludwig (Lewis) Stephens

British; 1754, Built a hexagonal stone gunpowder magazine reaching deep into the ground near his house and mill on Cedar Creek and the powder magazine was later used as an icehouse and was most likely encircled by a log stockade during the Indian war.
Fort Halifax, Maine British; 1754-1762, Built to protect settlers from Indians; 1775-c1778, Occupied by Americans.
Fort La Base, Mississippi French; 1755.
Great Cacapon Fort (Isaac Dawson's Fort), West Virginia British; 1755, Built settler fort.
Fort La Galleth, Québec French, 1755, Built to guard Trois-Rivières.
Presidio Santa Gertrudis del Altar, Texas Spanish; 1755, Built with 30 men from Sinaloa.
Fort Hamilton, Pennsylvania British; 1755-1757, Palisaded house with four half-bastions and garrisoned by 75 men.
Fort Shediac, New Brunswick French; c1755, a military warehouse for munitions and rations were sent from the St. Lawrence.
Fort Le Sueur, Minnesota French, 1755.
Fort Mann (Fort Christian), Virginia Colonial British; 1755; Built as a small stockade at the mouth of the Falling Springs Run as protection against the Cherokee Indians.
Fort Patterson (James Patterson's Fort, Fort George), Pennsylvania British; 1755, Patterson built a house fitted up for the defense against Indians after Braddock's defeat.
Fort David Davis, Pennsylvania British; 1755, Settler's fort.

Fort Green Bryer, West Virginia

Commander: 1755, Major General Andrew Lewis

British; 1755, Built stockade against Indians.

Fort Evans, West Virginia

Commander: 1755, John Evans

Colonial British; 1755, Built stockade against Indians.
Fort St Laurate, Nova Scotia British; 1755.
Henry Baughman's, West Virginia British; 1755, Built against Shawnee Indians who attacked and destroyed fort immediately and killed all whites inside.
Samuel Hedges' Fort, West Virginia British; 1755, Built against Indians.
Fort Granville, Pennsylvania British; February 1755, Built in Juniata Valley; 1756, Attacked and destroyed by French and Indians with prisoners taken and the rest killed; August 1755, a retaliation was made against Shingas and Jacobs the leaders of the hostile Indians who lived at Kittanning.
Fort Bull (Fort Wood Creek), New York British; October 1755, Star-shaped pallisaded stockade with four buildings; 27 March 1756, Destroyed by French & Indians; August 1756, Re-built and renamed Fort Wood Creek; 20 August 1756, Destroyed by British after French captured Oswego.
Fort Crailo, New York. Dutch; 1755, Built at Rensselaer as a pallisaded fortified house..

Fort William Henry, New York

Commanders: 1755, Colonel Sir William Johnson, 1756, Lieutenant Colonel George Monro

British; 1755, Square palisade with four bastions; c25 July-7 August 1757, Successful siege by Major General Marquis de Montcalm with 8,000-men; July 1757, Brigadier General Sieur de Levis blocked British support south of William Henry; 7 August 1757, Brigadier General Bougainville proposed surrender terms which were broken by the Indians who massacred troops and families; 10 August 1757, French troops burned all bodies in the fort.

Fort Dickenson, Virginia

Commander: Lieutenant Colonel George Washington

British; 1755, Built for defence against Indians; 1756-1757, Attacked twice by Indians.
Fort Lehigh, Pennsylvania British; 1755-1758, .stockaded settlers' fort. Used by the Pennsylvania colonial militia

Fort Loudoun, Virginia

Commander: Lieutenant Colonel George Washington

British; 1755, Viginia militia headquarters this was a square earth redoubt with four bastions and 18 guns; 1780-1783, British and German prisoners of war interred.
Fort Delaware (Upper Fort), New York British; 1755-1760, in Cochecton garrisoned by New Jersey militia.
Fort Delaware (Lower Fort), Pennsylvania British; 1755-1760, a colonial militia fort palisaded 116' by 80' with a blockhouse at each corner and three log houses garrisoned by New Jersey militia.
Fort la Galleth, Québec French; c1755, Built near Trois Riviérs.
Captain William Cocke's Fort (George Parker's Fort), West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built settler fort with stockade with four blockhouses and a 50-man barracks.
Fort Lebanon Fort William), Pennsylvania British; 1755, Built as a 100' stockade with barracks and storerooms as defence against Indians.
Fort Welton, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built settler fort.
Fort Maidstone, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built militia stockaded fort.
Holland's Fort (Town Fort, Lynch's Fort), West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built settler fort.
Fort Ogden, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built as stockaded blockhouse and cabins.
William Baldwin's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built stockaded settler two-story log fort.
John Neally's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British;1755, Built stockaded settler fort; 1756, Captured by Indians with settlers killed or prisoner; 1757, Rebuilt and garrisoned by colonial militia.
Robert Cunningham's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built stockaded settler fort.
Thomas Shepherd's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British;1755, Added stockades to stone house.
Nathaniel Bell's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built stockaded settler log fort.
Fort Allen, Pennsylvania British; 1755, with a 12' high stockade 125' x 50' with bastions and two guns built under direct supervision of Benjamin Frankin and used by the Pennsylvania colonial militia.
Fort Hunter, Pennsylvania British; 1755-1756, Built stone fort.
Fort Looney (Fauquier), Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built as a fortified home to protect settlers from Indians; 1758, Rebuilt as militia fort and renamed.
Reverend John Steel's Fort, Pennsylvania British; 1755, A stockaded church.

Fort Ashby, West Virginia

Commanders: 1755, Captain Charles Lewis, Lieutenants Thomas Rutherford, John Bacon.

Colonial British; 1755, Built as 90' square stockade with four corner bastions ordered by Colonel George Washington to guard the Fort Loudoun to Fort Cumberland supply-line against Indians. 15 April 1755, a successful French and Indian attack against a 21-man garrison;

Fort Morris, Pennsylvania

Commander: 1756, Captain Hugh Mercer

British, 1755, Built in Cumberland County by James Burd after Braddock's defeat in July; 1756, garrisoned by provincial troops.
Fort Lyttelton, Pennsylvania British; 1755, Built by George Croghan and garrisoned up to 1763. 1764, Reported in ruins.
Fort Standing Stone, Pennsylvania British; c1755, Built with magazines and drawn on a French map of 1758.
Fort Dobbs, North Carolina British; 1755, Fort was 40' x 53' and had two block houses. 1769, Site of Cherokee Indian final defeat.
John Evans' Fort, West Virginia British; 1755, Built settler fort; 1756, Attacked by Indians but defended by women; 1756 Garrisoned by colonial militia.
Fort Cole, New York British; 1755, Fortified house with two blockhouses inside 120' square palisade.
Fort Vaudreuil (Fort Carillon, Fort Ticonderoga), New York French; 1755, Built on strategic Lakes George/Champlain water access between the French and English colonies; 1757, General Montcalm used re-named Fort Carillon to attack Fort William Henry on Lake George; 1758, Failed British Major General Abercromby attack; 1759, Captured by British Major General Jeffrey Amherst re-built and re-named Fort Ticonderoga; 1759-1763, British garrison; 9 May 1775, Captured by Colonels Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen; December 1775, Cannons dragged to Boston.
Nazareth Stockades, Pennsylvania British; 1755, Sentry boxes and stockades built around the five largest dwellings in the Moravian settlement to create a pentagon-shaped defense.

Fort Wentworth, New Hampshire

Commanders: 1755, Major Robert Rogers, 1778, Colonel Timothy Bedel

British; 1755, Built by Robert Rogers; 1778, Occupied by colonials.
Fort George, New York 1755, Built on site of Sir William Johnson's defeat of French commander Major General Baron von Diskau; Improvements started 1759; 1776, Captured by Americans; 1777, Abandoned and reoccupied after Battle of Saratoga; 1780, Surrendered.

Fort Shepherd, West Virginia

Commander: Lieutenant David Shepherd

Colonial British; 1755, a strong stockade fort; 1777, Attacked and destroyed by Indians, but rebuilt with four bastions.
Fort Augusta (Shamokin Fort), Pennsylvania British; 1755, Colonial militia log fort 200' square with dry moat and 12 guns the outer defences included a stockade with four block houses quarters underground powder house and well.

Fort Dinwiddie (William Warwick's Fort, Byrd's Fort), Virginia

Commander: Lieutenant Colonel George Washington

British; 1755, Built as stockaded house for defence against Indians.

Fort Savannah (Camp Union, Fort Charles), West Virginia

Commander: Captain Andrew Lewis

British; 1755, Ordered by Major General Edward Braddock; 1774, Site of assembly for Captain Andrew Lewis and 1,000 men for 10 October 1774 Shawnee Indian Battle of Point Pleasant to end Lord Dunmore's War.
Fort Gaspéreau (Fort Gaspareaux, Fort Monckton), New Brunswick French; 1755, Captured by British renamed Fort Monckton; 1756, Block-house added.

Fort Savannah, West Virginia

Commander: Captain Andrew Lewis

Colonial British; 1755, in Greenbrier County.
Baldwin's Blockhouse (Fort Baldwin), West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, a blockhouse on the site of the present village of Blacksville in Monongalia County where there were many Indian attacks.
Burris' Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; c1755, a small fort on the east side of the Monongahela River.
Fort Amherst (Fort Miller), New York British; 1755, Built with a small stockade on the site of an earlier 1709 fort; 1757-1758, Fortified camp; 1759, Built with stockade, a blockhouse, and four bations to consolidate Amherst's northern push into Canada;
Beech Bottom Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1755, Built stockaded settler blockhouse.

Old Stone Fort (Fort Matamoras), Pennsylvania

Commander; Simon Westfaeil

British; 1755, Built by a Dutch settler one and one-half story stone house.

Fort Ontario (Fort of the Six Nations, East Fort), New York

Commander: Colonel Sir William Johnson

British; 1755, Pentagonal log-stockade 800' in circumference with wall and moat eight cannons and four mortars near Oswego; 11 August 1756, Attacked by Montcalm abandoned and destroyed; 1758, Rebuilt as pentagon with bastions; 1770, Abandoned; 1778, Burned by Americans; 1782, Re-garrisoned by British; 1783, Attacked by Americans; 1796, Occupied by Americans; 1814, Captured and burned by British; 1839-1844, Re-built.
Fort Everett, Pennsylvania British; 1756, A settlers' fort; 1758, Used by the Pennsylvania colonial militia.
Fort Peterson, West Virginia 1756, a small stockaded fort.

Fort Gardiner, New York

Commander: Captain Richard Gardiner

British; 1756, Palisade 100' square with several buildings for defence against French and Indians.
Henry Enoch's Fort, West Virginia British; 1756, Built settler fort with militia garrison.
Fort Mckee (Hendrick's Block House), Pennsylvania British; 1756, Built as a two-story blockhouse in Snyder County.
Fort George (New Fort Oswego, Fort Rascal, West Fort), New York

British; August 1756, Destroyed by Major General Marquis de Montcalm while still under construction.

James Brown's Fort (Fort Manada), Pennsylvania British; January 1756-May 1757, James Brown's log house-fort named Fort Manada and garrisoned with 21 officers and men as an outpost of Fort Swatara.
Fort Trucker (Kern's Fort), Pennsylvania British; 1756, Built as defence against Indians and used by the Pennsylvania colonial militia.

Fort Blackwater (Captain Nathaniel Terry's Fort), Virginia

Commander: Captain Nathaniel Terry

British; 1756, Built as stockade for defence against Indians.
Fort Dunkard Bottom, Virginia British; 1756, Built for defence against Indians.
Fort Upper Tract, West Virginia Colonial British; 1756, Built by Colonel George Washington.
Fort Mayo, Virginia British; 1756, Built for defence against Indians.

Fort Trial, Virginia

Commander: Lieutenant Colonel George Washington

British; 1756, Built for defence against Indians.
Fort Halifax, Pennsylvania British; 1756, Built north of the town of Halifax with four bastions on the Susquehanna River; 1756-1757, Manned by colonial militia this was a 160' square fort.
Fort Virginia, Tennessee British; 1756, Built for defence against French never garrisoned. 1757, Abandoned.

Fort Hyndshaw, Pennsylvania

Commander: 1756, James Hyndshaw

British; 1756-1757, Manned by colonial militia this was a 70' square palisaded house.
Fort Northkill, Pennsylvania British; 1756, 32' square palisade around log house.
John Parker's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1756, Garrisoned by colonial militia.

Fort Henry (Busse's Fort, Dietrich Six's Fort), Pennsylvania

Commanders: 1756, Captain Christian Busse

British; 1756, Palisaded stone headquarters for defence against Indians.

Fort Norris, Pennsylvania

Commander: 1756, Captains Jacob Arndt, George Reynolds

British; 1756, 80' square palisade with four half-bastions and two guns around several log houses with 50-man garrison; 1757, Abandoned.
Upper Tract Fort (Captain Thomas Waggoner's Upper Fort), West Virginia British; 1756, Built 90' square stockade with four blockhouses; 1758, Attacked and destroyed by Delaware Indians.

Fort Buttermilk (Captain Thomas Waggoner's Lower Fort), West Virginia

Commander: Captain Thomas Waggeneer

British; 1756, Built stockaded fort as ordered by Colonel Washington.

Miramichi Fort, New Brunswick

Commander: Charles Deschamps de Boishébert

French; 1756, Built to protect Acadians.
Fort Walpack, New Jersey British; 1756, Palisade 50' square with church and block house.
Richard Williams' Fort, West Virginia British; 1756, a stockaded fort on the South Branch of the Potomac in Hampshire County.

Colonel Abraham Van Campen's Fort, New Jersey

Commander: Colonel Abraham Van Campen

British; 1756, Palisaded 65' square with 20' square block house and stone house.
Normanock Fort (Fort Namanock, Nominack), New Jersey Colonial British; 1756, a militia fort.
Fort Reading, New Jersey British; 1756, Palisade 60' square with stone block house and stone house.
Fort Seybert (Fort Blizzard, Syvers), West Virginia British; 1756, Built two-story blockhouse and circular stockade; 1758, Attacked and destroyed by Delaware Indians; 1758, Rebuilt as larger stockade with four blockhouses.
Fort Breckenridge, Virginia, Colonial British; 1756, Built; 1763, Attacked by Indians.
Fort Canaseraga, New York British; 1756, Sir William Johnson directed constrtuction of two-story block house.
Fort William, Virginia Colonial British; 1756, Attacked by Indians.
Fort Young, Virginia Colonial British; 1756, Built for defence against Indians.
Fort William McCord (Fort George McCord), Pennsylvania British; 1756, Attacked and burned by Indians; 1756, Rebuilt by same family as Fort George McCord; 1763, Attacked by Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion.
Fort Hoosac (West Hoosac Blockhouse), Massachusetts British; 1756-1763, Stockaded two-gun block house attacked several times by Indians.
Fort Lyttleton, Pennsylvania British; 1756, Built as a 100' stockade with bastions defence against Indians; 1760, Abandoned; 1763-1764, Re-occupied during Pontiac's Rebellion.
Fort Loudon, Pennsylvania British; 1756, Built as defence against Indians; 1758, Supported Brigadier Forbes' campaign against Fort du Quesne; 1763, Supported Colonel Bouquet against Pontiac's Rebellion; 1765, colonists captured a few soldiers and forced fort closed.
Fort Capon, West Virginia British; 1756, Built stockade with militia garrison.
Fort Defiance (Jacob Peterson's Fort), West Virginia British; 1756, Built stockaded fort 60' feet with two bastions.
Fort Miller (Jacob Miller's Fort, Woodstock Fort), Virginia British; 1756, Built; 1766, Possibly attacked by Indians.
Presidio San Agustin de Ahumada (Presidio Orcoquisac), Texas Spanish; 1756, Built to guard the Orcoquisac Indian tribe the 30-man garrison was largely untrained;
Fort Williams, New York British; 1756, Built during the Seven Year War on a portage near the future Fort Stanwix; 20 August 1756, Destroyed by British to deny to French who had captured Oswego; 1759, Rebuilt between Forts Edward and George but later abandoned; 1778, Rebuilt as blockhouse at Salem after General Burgoyne's 1777 defeat at Saratoga.

Fort Pleasant (Henry Van Meter's Fort, Town Fort), West Virginia

Commander: 1756, Thomas Waggener

British; 1756, Built as large stockade with barracks magazine, and four two-story blockhouses as defence against Indians.

Fort John's (Fort Shipnack, Head Quarters Fort.), West Virginia

Commander: Captain John Rosencrans

British; 1756, Palisade 120' square with block house and log cabin plus stone house.
Fort Mcdowell, Pennsylvania British; 1756, a small stockade.

Fort Pearsall (Job Pearsall's Fort, Pearscall, Captain Robert McKenzie's Fort), West Virginia

Commander: Captain Robert McKenzie

British; 1756, Built as log house and stockade against Delaware Indians; 1756-1758, Pearsall’s stockade was provisioned as a fort for the Virginia Regiment and often garrisoned; 1774, Garrisoned in Dunmore's War.

Captain John Stuart's Fort, West Virginia

Commander: Captain John Stuart

British; 1756, Built stockaded militia fort.

John Wetzel's Fort, West Virginia

Commander: John Wetzel

Colonial British; 1756, Built stockaded fort on Wheeling Creek for himself and five sons who were acclaimed the best Indian fighters on the frontier.
Trout Rock Fort, West Virginia British; 1756, Built 60' square stockade with two blockhouses; 1862, Americans used site in Civil War.
Fort Frederick, Maryland British; 1756, Built for protection from Indians as square shape with corner bastions and 1m thick x 6.5m high stone walls; 1758, Supported Forbes Attack on Fort Duquesne; 1859-1865, American garrison.
Fort George, Virginia Colonial British; 1757, Built as log fort to protect settlers from Indians.

Fort Audley Paul, Virginia

Commander: Captain Audley Paul

British; 1757, Built to counter Indian threats.
Fort Loudoun, Tennessee British; 1757, Built with four bastions for defence against French and garrisoned by a company; August 1760, Captured by Cherokee Indians and burnt.

Presidio San Luis de las Amarillas (Real Presidio de San Sabá, San Sabá Presidio), Texas

Commander: 1757, Colonel Diego Ortiz de Parrilla, 1758, Capitan Manuel Rodríguez, 1760, Capitan Felipe de Rábago y Terán, 1769, Capitan Manuel Antonio de Oca y Alemán

Spanish; April 1757, Presidio built on San Sabá River to curb Lipan Apache and Comanche Indians; 16 March 1758, Attacked by 2,000 Comanche Indians; August 1759, Garrison of 500 Spaniards led out to attack and defeated by 2,000 Comanche Indians; 1760, Rebuilt stone quadrangle fort with four bastions and moat called Real Presidio de San Sabá; 1761-1767, Harassed by Comanches; 1768, Increased Indian raids; June 1768, Abandoned and moved garrison to Mission San Lorenzo on Nueces River; 1772, Officially abandoned.
Fort Dorchester, South Carolina Colonial British; 1757, July-November 1775, Rebuilt by Americans and garrisoned by two companies.
Fort Ralston (Ralston's Fort, Fort Brown), Pennsylvania British; 1757, Used by Pennsylvania's colonial militia.
Fort Ramsay (Pointe McConnell), Québec French; 1757, Built to protect Gaspe; 1763, British; 1765, Rebuilt by British; c1826, Renamed Ramsay; 1834, Abandoned.

Fort de l'Ascension (Massiac, Massac), Illinois

French; 1757, Built of wood on Ohio River; 1759, Rebuilt with 135' square walls with bastions; c1761, Failed Cherokee Indian attack; 1763, Abandoned and burned; 1794, Rebuilt; 1812, Rebuilt; 1814, Abandoned; 1860, Reoccupied; 1862, Abandoned.

Fort Raystown (Fort Bedford), Pennsylvania

Commander: Brigadier John Forbes

British; 1758, Built with 5 bastions deep water moats and river George Washington and Forbes' 6,000 men encamped there; 1759, Renamed Bedford; 1769, Captured by colonists and evacuated; 1771, Used as refuge from Indian attacks.
Fort Bedford, Pennsylvania British; 1758, Built as stockade to protect Brigadier John Forbes' road to Fort du Quesne;
Fort Juniata Crossing (Martin), Pennsylvania British; 1758, Built to house 7,000m square with five bastions to protect Brigadier John Forbes' road to Fort du Quesne;
Fort Stoney Creek, Pennsylvania British; 1758.
Fort Hinkle (Justinius Hinkle's Fort, John Justice Hinkle's Fort), West Virginia British; 1758, Built settler blockhouse; c1760-1762, Attacked by Delaware Indians. 1762, Added stockade against Delaware Indians.

Fort Ligonier (Loyalhanna), Pennsylvania

Commander: Brigadier John Forbes

British; September 1758, Built en route to Fort du Quesne to support Brigadier John Forbes' attack; 12 October 1758, Defeated French attack; 27 May-9 August 1763, Withstood siege in Pontiac's War after Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated Indians at Battle of Bushy Run; March 1768, Decommissioned.
Fort Chiswell, Virginia British; 1758, Built to protect settlers travelling West from Indian attack; 1759, the Virginia Regiment built road to North Carolina to support attacks against Cherokee Indians.
Fort Lyttleton (Beaufort Battery, Fort Marion), South Carolina British; 1758, Built 400' x 375' triangular tabby-cement fort with bastion and two half-bastions and barracks plus a magazine; 1775, Seized by colonists; 1779, Attacked by British but blown up by colonists; 1809, Rebuilt by Americans.

Fort Stanwix (Schuyler), New York

Commander: 1758, Colonel John Stanwix, 1777, Colonel Peter Gansevoort

British; 1758, Built by Major General John Stanwixon the Mohawk River with four bastions; 1768, 2,000 Indians witnessed treaty signing with Sir William Johnson ceding much of New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky; c1770, Abandoned; c1775, Occupied by Americans; 2-c10 August 1777, Failed siege by Colonel Barry St Leger; 6 August 1777, Battle of Oriskany resulting from Indian and Loyalist ambush of Herkimer relief column; c10 August 1777, Withdrawal of St Leger after news of second relief under General Benedict Arnold. 1784, Indian Treaty discussions and abandonment; 1856, Rebuilt to protect New York; 1934, Decommissioned.
Fort Gage, New York British; 1758-1760, Built on Lake George as a supply base for Fort William Henry.
Fort Brewerton, New York British; 1759, Built with earthworks on Lake Oneida.
Currance Fort (Cassino's Fort), West Virginia British; c1759, A small fort in the upper part of Tygart's Valley.
Fort Skenesborough, New York British; 1759, a blockhouse with a barracks;
Fort Middleton (Fort Ninety-Six), South Carolina British; 1759, Built as small stockaded barn to protect against Cherokee Indians; 1760, Attacked twice by Cherokees; 1761, Rebuilt; 1775, Occupied by colonists who defeated British siege; 1780, Captured by British and rebuilt; 1781, Failed colonial attack.
Fort Lévis (La Galette, Fort William Augustus), Québec French; 1759, Built on Isle Royale; 25 August 1760, Surrendered to General Amherst; 1760, Renamed Fort William Augustus.
Fort l'Île-aux-Noix, (Fort Lennox), Québec French; 1759, Built on a 210 acre island in the Richelieu River near the American border by General Bourlamaque after abandoning Fort Carillon to General Amherst; 20 August 1760, Surrendered to the British exploited for materials and renamed Lennox; 4 September 1775, Captured by American General Schyler and used as base for General Montgomery to invade and then retreat from Montréal; 1778, Recaptured by Governor Guy Carleton and rebuilt to guard Fort St Jean; 1812-1814, General Prevost garrisoned after 1812 Battle of La Colle and British shipyard was built nearby; 1820-1870, Re-built with defence works bastions and stone buildings and garrisoned to deter further American invasions; 1942-1946, German POW Prison camp.

Fort Jacques Cartier, Québec

Commander: Lieutenant d'Alberghetti

French; September 1759, Built by General Lévis; 10 September 1760, Captured by Colonel Simon Fraser for the British; 1763, Abandoned.
Fortaleza de San Fernando de Omoa, Honduras Spanish; 1759-1778, a massive fortress built to stockpile supplies and trade goods and to defend the colony from pirates and local Indians.
Fort Burd, Pennsylvania British; 1759, A sturdy square fort with curtain walls 97' and 30' bastions with 16' flanks the stockade was surrounded by a ditch the fort was built by Pennsylvania militia overlooking the Monongahela River and used as a supply depot.
Blockhouse Sainte-Foy, Québec British; 1760, Built against a French Counterattack.
Fort Frederick, St Croix Danish; 1760, a large stone fort to guard the harbour.
Blockhouse Lorette, Québec British; 1760, Built against a French Counterattack.
Fort San Carlos, (Fort Richmond), Louisiana French; c1760, Built fort as protection against Comanche and Atakapa Indians at Baton Rouge; 1764, British occupied and rebuilt with 18' x 9'-deep moat and 13 guns as Fort Richmond; 1778, Attacked by colonials who were captured by British; 1779, Captured by Spanish re-named as San Carlos and rebuilt six-pointed star fort with 16-guns; 1810, Captured by American settlers; 1815-1825, Built arsenal and barracks plus pentagonal commissary storehouse.
Fort St Philippe (Philip, Fort San Felipe de Placaminas, Fort Plaquemines), Louisiana French; 1761, Abandoned; 1792, Occupied by Spanish who rebuilt as Fort San Felipe de Placaminas, 1803, Occupied by Americans; 1814, Failed attack by British and rebuilt by Americans; 1841, Rebuilt; 1862, Captured 45-gun fort by USA from Confederates.
Fort Robinson, Tennessee, British; 1761, Built against Cherokee Indians; 1776, Rebuilt to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Fort George (Fort Greene, Fort Pulaski), Georgia British; 1761, Built blockhouse; 1776, Demolished by colonials; 1794, Americans built small fort; 1804, Destroyed by hurricane; 1829, Fort Pulaski begun; 1862, Destroyed during a Civil War barrage.
Maugher's Blockhouse, Nova Scotia British; 1762, A block house was Halifax's dockyard defence; 1775, Extended by three bastions surrounded by palisade and ditch with two outer blockhouses.
Fort Ayachin, Florida Spanish; 1762, Connected by defensive wall to Fort Mosé.
Fort Quidi Vidi Battery, Newfoundland French; 1762, Built on capture of St John's to defend the harbour from the British; 1812, Re-built and manned; 1815, Abandoned.
James Noble's Fort, Florida British; 1763, Built a stockaded trading post located south of present-day Government Street.
Fort Edward Augustus, Wisconsin British; 1763, Built isolated wood fort; 21 June 1763, Surrendered to Sioux Indians and abandoned.
Presidio Attapulgus, Florida Spanish; 1763, Built on the Okiokonee River.
Fort des Prairies (Nepawi House, Fort à la Corne), Saskatchewan French; 1763, Abandoned; 1846, Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) post.

Flourbag Fort, Pennsylvania

Commander: Colonel Henry Bouquet

British; August 1763, Colonel Henry Bouquet built a wall of flour bags for protection during a successful two-day battle with Chief Pontiac and rebelling Indians.
Fort George (Fort Waldeck, Presidio San Miguel, Fort St Michael, Presidio San Bernardo, Presidio Sombrero), Florida British; 1763-1778, Large fort with many buildings block houses and redouts; 1781, Captured by Spanish and Queen's Redoubt re-named Presidio San Miguel while Prince of Wales Redoubt re-named Presidio Sombrero; 1783, Re-built and re-named Presidio San Miguel; c1813, Captured by British and re-named Fort St Michael; 1814, Captured and abandoned by Americans; 1821, Abandoned by Spanish.
Fort Baie-Chateau (Fort York, Fort Pitt), Newfoundland French; 1763, Abandoned to British; 1766, Re-named Fort York and blockhouse named Fort Pitt built; 1778, Attacked by Americans; 1796, Attacked by French and destroyed by British.
Fort Charlotte, Saint Vincent, West Indies British; 1763, Construction begun for principal island defence against Carib Indians with moat and drawbridge protecting a stone fort with high walls; c 1790, Added magazines and barracks for 600 men; 1806, Garrisoned by two regiments and artillery with 34 x four six and twelve pounder guns plus 11 x 32 pounders on the seaward ramparts plus two mortars.
Presidio San Carlos, Missouri Spanish; 1764, Expanded to protect St Louis; 26 May 1780, Defended against 1,200 British allies.
Fort Erie, Ontario British; 1764, Built on the Niagara River and served as a supply depot and inland port.
Stratford Fort, New Hampshire British; c1764.
Fort Barrington, Georgia British; c1764.
Fort Charlotte, South Carolina British; 1765, Built to protect against Cherokee Indians; 1775, Occupied by colonists.
Fort Sinclair, Michigan British; 1765, Built to protect supply to Michilimackinac.
Rapides Post, Louisiana Spanish; 1766-1769, Garrisoned.
Fort San Carlos el Rey (Don Carlos Tercero, Fort San Carlos del Misuri), Missouri Spanish; 1767, Built log blockhouse 18' square and 7-feet high on north side Missouri River opposite Fort Don Carlos; 1780; Both forts destroyed by Spanish as British prepared attack on St Louis.
Fort Don Carlos el Señor Principe de Asturias, (Fort Don Carlos), Missouri Spanish; 1767, Built 80' square palisade with four bastions on south side Missouri River opposite Fort San Carlos; Both forts destroyed by Spanish as British prepared attack on St Louis.
Fort San Luis de Natchez, Louisiana Spanish; 1768, 149 Acadians deported to San Luis de Natchez;
John Van Meter's Fort, West Virginia British; 1768, Built as fortified cabin but continually enlarged became the second largest fortification in West Virginia; 1770s Indians and British attacks all failed.
Fort Pierpoint, West Virginia Colonial British; 1769, Built in Monongalia County.

Presidio San Diego, California

Commander: Gobernador Don Gaspar de Portola, Capitan Don Pedro Fages

Spanish; 1 July 1769, Presidio Built to defend new claim of Alta California; 1778, Built of Adobe; 1796, Construction completed; 1822, Seized by Mexico on independence from Spain; 1825-1829, Governor's residence; 1835, Abandoned.

Fort Stuart, West Virginia

Commander: Capt. John Stuart

Colonial British; 1769, Built against the Shawnee Indians to support Lord Dunmore's War.
Forty Fort, Pennsylvania British; 1769, Built near Wilkes-Barre for the first 40 settlers from Connecticut; 3 July 1778, Attacked by Colonel John Butler, leading his Butler's Rangers and Joseph Brant leading Senaca and Cayuga Indians who defeated the local American garrison killing 300 of the inexperienced militia defenders.
Fort Amsterdam, Curaçao Dutch; 1769, Built to protect Dutch West India Company trade from French and British; 1807, Captured by British; 1836, Returned to Dutch.
Mann's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1770, near Peterstown.
Edmund West's Fort, West Virginia British; 1770, Built stockaded fort; 1779, Attacked and burned by Indians.
Fort West, West Virginia Colonial British; 1770, Built; 1778-1779, Attacked and burned by Indians.
El Presidio Real de Monte Rey (Fort Stockton, Ord Barracks, Presidio Monterey), California Spanish; 1770, Built to protect Missions and defend colonies against Comanche & Apache Indians and from Russian, French, and English encroachment; 1771, Garrison strength varied 0-50 soldiers. .
Captain John settler Fort, West Virginia British; 1770, Palisade covered over an acre with four blockhouses; 1778, More than 300 settlers took refuge here from Indians.

Fort, Donnally (Colonel Andrew Donnally's Fort), West Virginia

Commander: Colonel Andrew Donnally

British; 1770, Built large palisaded two-story blockhouse; May 1778, Unsuccessfully attacked by Shawnee Indians.
Fort Statler, West Virginia Colonial British; 1770, Attacked by Indians.

Fort Clark, West Virginia

Commander; 1771, Henry Clark

Colonial British; 1771, Built a small stockade consisting of four cabins placed close together, and protected by a palisade wall ten feet high.

Fort Richards

Commander: Jacob Richards

Colonial British; 1771, a strong fort.
Fort Wyoming, Pennsylvania British; 1771, Built by Pennsylvania and then captured by Connecticut colonists; 1778, Re-built as a defense against the British.
John Powers' Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1771, on Simpson's Creek, in Harrison County.
Nutter's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1772, Built large stockaded fort.
Michael Kerns' Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1772, one of the largest forts it was stockaded on the Monongahela River.
Fort Eckley (Fort Day, Price's Old Fort), West Virginia Colonial British; 1772, Built in in Pocahontas County.
Fort Watauga, Tennessee British; 1772, Settler fort site of Cherokee Transylvania Treaty; c1775, Attacked by Cherokees.
Fort Dinwiddie (Fort Rogers Jacob Rogers'), West Virginia British; 1772, Built large militia stockaded fort.
Presidio San Nazario, la Habana, Cuba Spanish; c1772, Built as an artillery battery after British Captured Havana in 1762; 1898, Captured by Americans in the Spanish American War.
Fort Blair (Camp Point Pleasant, Fort Randolph), West Virginia British; c1772, Burned by Shawnee Indians; 1774, Battle of Point Pleasant with Shawnee Indians and Rebuilt fort; 1776, Rebuilt as Fort Randolph; 1778, Attacked by Shawnee Indians.
Fort Caswell, (Fort Watauga), Tennessee British; 1772, Settlers bought Cherokee land; 1775, Built palisaded enclosure with blockhouses; July 1776, Defeated Cherokee Indian Siege of Fort Caswell.

Joseph Tomlinson's Fort, West Virginia

Commander: Joseph Tomlinson

British; c1772, Built stockaded fort; 1777, Abandoned but burned down by Indians; 1784, Rebuilt.

Fort Woods, West Virginia

Commander: Captain Michael Woods

Colonial British; 1773, Built stockaded fort in Monroe County. 1774, Garrison of 14 men joined Colonel Lewis for the Point Pleasant Battle with the Cherokee Indians.
Fort Stewart, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built as a block-house in Monongalia County.
Fort Tomlinson, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built as small stockaded fort; 1777, Attacked and burned by Indians.
John McIntire's Blockhouse, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built solid log blockhouse.
Henry Flesher's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built blockhouse; 1784, Attacked by Indians.
Fort Frederick, Vermont British; 1773, Built by Ira Allen, Ethan Allen's brother, who also established a shipyard nearby in 1772.
Colonel Charles Martin's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built on the west side of the Monongahela River; 1779, Attacked by Indians.

Fort Blackmore, Virginia

Commander: Captain John Blackmore

Colonial British; 1773, Built fort; April 1774, Daniel Boone returned from Kentucky; September-October 1774, manned with a garrison of 16 men. attacked twice by Cherokee and Shawnee Indians; 1776, Attacked by Cherokee Indians; 1777, Attacked by Cherokee Indians.
Captain Wallace Estill's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built solid log blockhouse; 1774, Attacked by Indians; 1782, Captain Estill and six of his men were killed in a battle with the Indians

Fort Gower, Ohio

Commander: Lord Dunmore

Colonial British; 1773, Built in Dunmore's War against Cherokee and Shawnee Indians.
William Currence's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; c1773, Built in Randolph County.
Fort Wells, West Virginia Colonial British; 1773, Built by Quakers who had no trouble with Indians.
Fort Westfall, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Built a small stockade with a large house inside.

Fort Allen, Pennsylvania

Commander: Colonel Christopher Truby

Colonial British; 1774, Built to protect German settlers from Shawnee and Mingo Indian attack during Lord Dunmore's War.

Fort Fincastle (Henry), West Virginia

British; 1774, Built to protect against the Cherokee and Shawnee Indians a timber palisade wall with blockhouses at four corners; 1781, a two-story log structure was added near the front gate on which a cannon was mounted.
Jonas Friend's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; c1774, at Maxwell's Ferry on Leading Creek in Randolph County; 1781, Attacked by Indians.
Jackson's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Built stockaded fort.
Richard Morris'Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Stockaded with several cabins.

Fort Vanmeter, West Virginia

Commander:1774-1782, Major Samuel McColloch

Colonial British; 1774, Built to support Lord Dunmore's War with the Cherokee Indians. 1782, Attacked by Indians.

Fort Beeler, West Virginia

Commander: c1774, Colonel Joseph Beeler, 1781, Captain Jeremiah Long

Colonial British; c1774, Built to deter Cherokee and Shawnee Indian attacks.
Kelly's Fort (Kelly's Station, Captain William Morris' Fort), West Virginia Colonial British; 1774.

Captain John Morris' Fort, West Virginia

Commander: Captain John Morris

Colonial British; 1774, Built stockaded fort.

Wilson's Fort, West Virginia

Commander: Captain Benjamin Wilson

Colonial British; 1774, Built on the east side of Tygart's Valley River, Randolph County; 1782, There were 22 families in this fort in May, 1782.
Fort Harrod, Kentucky British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians.
Butler's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Built as a small fort which stood at the mouth of Roaring Creek, on the east side of Cheat River
Fort Burke, Virginia British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians.
Fort Elk Garden, Virginia British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians with a garrison of 18 men.
Fort Glade Hollow, Virginia British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians with a garrison of 15 men.
Warwick's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Built in a week by 16 militia men in he Greenbrier Valley on a bluff between the forks of Deer Creek.
Fort Houston, Virginia British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians.
Fort Maiden Springs, Virginia British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians.
Fort Witten, Virginia

Commander: Ensign John Campbell

British; 1774, Built for Lord Dunmore's War against the Cherokee Indians with a garrison of three men.

Fort Moore (Boone's Fort), Virginia

Commander: Daniel Boone

British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians with a garrison of 20 men.
John Hadden's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; c1774, a strong fort in Tygart's Valley in Randolph County.

Fort Culbertson (Fort Byrd, Fort Field, Culbertson's Bottom Fort), West Virginia

Commander: Captain James Robertson

Colonial British; 1774, a stockaded fort.
Fort Harrod, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Built as pallisaded village to defend against Cherokee Indians.
Fort Russell, Virginia British; 1774, Built to defend against Cherokee Indians with a garrison of 20 men.
Fort Boston Neck, Massachusetts British; 1774, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Fort Bunker Hill, Massachusetts British; 1774, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Fort Copp's Hill, Massachusetts British; 1774, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Captain Mathew Arbuckle's Fort, West Virginia British; 1774-c1783 a small stockaded fort.
Arnold Richards' Fort (Lowther's Fort), West Virginia Colonial British; 1774-c1785.
Fort Carter, Virginia British; 1774, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Jacob Prickett's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1774, Built stockaded fort with four blockhouses and ten cabins.
Presidio San Sabá, Texas Spanish; 1775, Garrison 46 men.
Presidio Cerro Gordo, Texas Spanish; 1775, Built to strengthen defence against Indian raids; 1775, Garrison 46 men.
Fort Amherst, Newfoundland British; c1775, Built at the entrance to St John's harbour to protect the fisheries and colony against potential American or French raids.
Presidio San Saba-Aguaverda, Texas Spanish; 1775, Built to strengthen defence against Indian raids; 1775, Garrison 46 men.
Presidio Altar, Texas Spanish; 1775, Garrison 46 men.
Presidio Buenavista, Texas Spanish; 1775, Garrison 46 men.
Fort Townshend, Newfoundland British; c1776, Built above the town to defend St John's from landward attack.
Presidio San Buenaventura, Texas Spanish; 1776, Garrison 46 men.
Fort Green End, Rhode Island British; 1776, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.

Presidio de Yerba Buena (Presidio San Francisco), California

Commander: 1796-1801, Lieutenant Colonel Pedro de Alberni,

Spanish; 1776, Built to protect mission; 1822, Occupied by Mexicans; 1846, Abandoned; 1851, Occupied by Americans.
Fort Saratoga Redoubts, New York British; 1777, Built by General Burgoyne to defend against General Gate's attack.
Fort Butt's Hill, Rhode Island British; 1777, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Old Fort Smyrna, Florida British; 1777, Attacked and surrendered to Spanish.
Fort Greenbrier, West Virginia British; 1777, Attacked by Shawnee Indians.
Fort Penn, Pennsylvania British; 1757-1763, Used by the Pennsylvania colonial militia; 1776, Rebuilt and used again by Patriot forces and as Philadelphia's palisaded entrenchments with 10 redoubts against Americans; 1778, a settler refuge during the "Wyoming Valley Massacre".
Fort McIntosh, Florida British; 1778, Battle of Cabbage Swamp fought here.
Fort Yamaska, Québec British; 1778, Built as St Hyacinthe Blockhouse to monitor French and Americans; 1781, relocated south to Farnham with added earthworks.
Fort Charlotte, Minnesota British; 1778, Built as stockaded trading fort.
Fort San Carlos (Fort St Charles, Fort San Luis de Ylinoa), Missouri Spanish; 1778, Built large fort of wood and stone; 1780 Added stone tower with five-guns bastions and outer entrenchments; 26 May 1780, Failed British attack by 1,200 men; 1796, Tower was stockaded an eight-gun banquette added and renamed Fort San Luis de Ylinoa; 1804, Ceded to Americans.
Fort Tonyn, Florida British; 1778, Captured by Americans.
John Statler's Fort, West Virginia British; 1779, Attacked by Indians.
Fort Cornwallis, Georgia British; 1779, Built to consolidate against the colonies' revolution.
Percé Battery, Québec French; 1780, Two guns used against American privateers.
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinac), Michigan British; 1780, Abandoned earlier French Fort Michilimackinac for the nearby Mackinac Island where they built stone Fort Michilimackinac; 1796, American occupied; 1812, Captured by small British forces including Robert Dickson and Indians and enlarged fort; 1814, Failed American attack; 1815, Ceded to Americans.

Presidio Montagorda (Fuerte Arruinado), Florida

Spanish; 1781, Built a brick fort on Santa Rosa Island; 1796, Abandoned.
Blockhouse La Colle Mill (Lacolle Bridge Blockhouse), Québec British; 1781, Rebuilt and fortified; 1812-1814, Attacked twice; 1814, Fortified with loopholed stone walls.
Fort Ninety Six, South Carolina British; 1781, Built to defend against further American invasions.
Yorktown Fortifications, Virginia British; September 1781, Lieutenant General Lord Charles Cornwallis orders the main garrison earth forts York and Gloucester and outlying strong-points or redoubts dug by troops and slaves; 17 October 1781, British seek cease-fire to negotiate surrender terms.
Pensacola Blockhouse, Florida Spanish; c1782.
John Bush's Fort, West Virginia Colonial British; 1782, Attacked and destroyed by Indians.

El Presidio de Santa Barbara, California

Commander: José Francisco Ortega

Spanish; 1782-1783, Built as a fortress with a strong outer wall with an open parade ground on all sides affording clear visibility. c1785-1840, Much damaged by iterative local earthquakes; 1846, Surrendered to Americans.

Sacred Heart Post (Charles Patterson's Post), Minnesota

Commander: Charles Patterson

British; 1783, Built trading post.
Fort Celeste (Post at New Madrid), Missouri French; 1783, Fortified trading post; 1789, Spanish built Fort Celeste an eight-gun moated square palisade with four blockhouses; 1796, Rebuilt on higher ground after flood; 1801, Burnt down; 1804, Occupied by Americans; 1808, Rebuilt as Post at New Madrid.
Castillo de Chapultepec, Mexico City Spanish; 1783, Built to house Mexican military school; 1898, Captured by Americans in Spanish American War.
San Vicente Ferrer Battery, Florida Spanish; 1784, Built to control the St John River traffic.
Fort Esperance, Saskatchewan British; 1787, Built on the Qu'Appelle River; 1819, Abandoned.
Fort Chipewyan, Alberta British; 1788, Established by fur trader Roderick Mackenzie of the North West Company. His cousin Sir Alexander Mackenzie departed from this fort on an expedition which led to the discovery of the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories in 1789.
Moose Lake Post (Lac d'Orignal), Alberta British; 1789, Built as a North West Company trading post.

Fort Saint George, Alaska

Russian; c1789, Built by Gavrill Pribilof in the Aleutian islands to guard the sealing industry operated by the Russians with enslaved Indian labour.
Fort Lacloche, Ontario British; 1790, A North West Company and then a Hudson's Bay Company post.
Fort Miró, Lousiana Spanish; 1790-1804.
Fort Montagne á la Bosse, Manitoba British; 1790, Stockaded post with several cabins.
Presidio Carondelet, Missouri Spanish; 1791.
Fort Frederick, Grenada, West Indies British; 1791, Small complement to Fort George.

Fort St Nicholas (Kenai, Kenay), Alaska

Commander: Captain Grigor Konovalof

Russian; 1791, Built as a Russian post for fur and fish trading; 1797, Attacked by Dene Indians; 1838, Smallpox killed 50% of the native Indians.
Fort los Nogales (Fort McHenry), Mississippi Spanish; 1791, Major defence with 12 cannon facing the river and four howitzers in blockhouses facing land and barracks for 200 men with four block houses (Fort Mount Vigie Fort Gayoso Fort Ignatius) within 1,000m; 1798, American control re-named Fort McHenry; 1800, Abandoned.

Fort Carondelet, Missouri

Commanders: 1791, Auguste Choteau, Pierre Choteau, 1802, Manuel Lisa

Spanish; 1791, sold to fur trader Manuel Lisa Built by St. Louis fur traders Auguste and Pierre Choteau in Osage Nation on the site of a 1784 fur trading post; 1802-1804, Sold to fur trader Manuel Lisa.

Fort St Louis (Fond du Lac Post), Wisconsin British; 1793, Built as a North West Company stockaded trading post with two blockhouses and two guns.
York Redoubt, Nova Scotia British; 1793, Built to defend against further American invasions.
Fort Dorchester, Nova Scotia British; 1793, Built to defend against the colonies' revolution.
Fort York, Ontario British; 1793, Built to defend against further American invasions.
Castillo de San Joaquin (Fort Blanco, Fort Point), California Spanish; 1793-1794, Built 10-gun battery on San Fancisco cliff.
Rocky Mountain House {Fort St John, Fort d'Epinette), British Columbia British; 1794-1805, Used as a fur-trading post and supply depot; 1806, Re-built by the North West Company as Fort d'Epinette; 1821, Re-named Fort St John by the Hudson's Bay Company; 1823, Abandoned; 1860-1925, Re-opened but moved away from the Beatton River.
Quesada Battery, Florida Spanish; c1794.
Fort Abitibi, Québec British; 1794, Built to defend trade became a Hudson's Bay Company post.
Castillo de San Joaquin (Fort Point, Fort Winfield Scott), California Spanish; 1794, Built 14-gun fortress of brick and adobe; 1822, Occupied by Mexico, c1830, Abandoned; 1881, Rebuilt.
Fort Alexander, Manitoba British; 1795.
Fort Guana, Florida Spanish; 1795, Attacked and destroyed by Americans.
Fort Edmonton, Alberta British; 1795, Built as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post; 1874, Occupied as a NWMP post.
Presidio Los Angeles, California Spanish; 1795, Built by 72 men of the Primera compañia franca de Voluntarios de Cataluña in Alta California.
Fort Augustus, Alberta British; 1795, Built as a North West Company trading post.
Fort Zoutman, Aruba Dutch; 1796, Stone fort built of coral.
Fort St Joseph, Ontario British; 1796, Built to defend against further American invasions.
Fort George, Ontario British; 1796, Built to defend against further American invasions.
Fort Nassau, Curacao, West Indies Dutch; 1796, Built as a stone buttressed fort.

Fort Amherstburg (Fort Malden), Ontario

Commanders: 1799, Hector Maclean, 1812-1813, Lt Colonel Henry Procter

British; 1796, Built temporary buildings to command the waterways and defend against further American invasions; 1799, Added 225m square 3m wooden palisade and four earth bastions each mounting four cannons with additional five guns and blockade at the gate; 1805-1813, Ship-building centre for four brigs ; 1812, British local military headquarters; July 1812, Unsuccessfully Attacked by Major General William Hull; August 1812, Major General Isaac Brock and Indian Chief Tecumseh coordinated successful attack and capture of Fort Detroit; 1813, Burned by Procter to prevent American capture; 1814, Captured by Americans and re-built and re-named Fort Malden; 1815, Recovered by British; 1838-1840, Re-built for defence in Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837-39.

Prince of Wales Tower, Nova Scotia British; 1796, Built Martello tower to protect four Halifax harbour-defence batteries.
Presidio Puerto de la Purisima Concepcion (Camp Calhoun, Camp Yuma), California Spanish; 1797, Built to protect Mission; 1781, Attacked and destroyed by Yuma Indians; 1849, Rebuilt by Americans.
Fort Dauphin, Manitoba French; 1797, Built North West Company trading post and palisaded fort with several cabins; 1817, Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) built trading post.
Castillo de Guijarros (Fort Guijarros), California Spanish; 1797, Built 10-gun battery.
San Juan Bautista Garrison, California Spanish; 1797, Built to protect Mission San Juan Bautista.
Fort Maria Sanchez, Florida Spanish;1797, Built; 1821, American occupied.
Fort Esperanza, Arkansas Spanish; 1797, Built on existing mounds left by the Indians.
Fort Republic (Fort Nassau, Fort George, Fort Oranjie Nassau), Curaçao, West Indies Dutch; 1797, Completed as large stone hill-top fort 60m above sea level with guns buildings and high glacis-walls; 1807, Captured by British called Fort George; 1836, Returned to Dutch and renamed Fort Oranjie Nassau.
Battery San José (Bateria de Yerba Buena), California Spanish; 1797, Governor Diego de Borica decided to construct defences for San Francisco's channel and harbour.
Lac La Biche Post, Alberta British; 1798, Built as a North West Company trading post.
Fort San Luis Rey, California Spanish; 1798, Built to protect the Mission at the same location with a garrison of 16 men; c1838, Abandoned by Spanish as Mexico claimed the area; 1846, Occupied by American army.

Redoubt Saint Gabriel, Sitka, Alaska

Commander: 1799, Alexander Baranof

Russian; 1799, Established colony and the fort at Old Sitka; 1802, Burned by Tlingit Indians who killed Russians and took prisoners.

 

ENDNOTES

1         There are many sources, including endless internet sites, however, I found some paricularly helpful. The website at http://www.geocities.com/naforts/ provides a large database of forts listed separately by state. Bruce Grant, American Forts, Yesterday and Today; and Pete and Phil Payette's NORTH AMERICAN FORTIFICATIONS at http://www.geocities.com/forts. The latter is an extended site covering the American states and Canadian provinces, plus some Mexican and Caribbean forts. Therre is a history of Illinois forts at http://www.genealogytrails.com/ill/forts.html#PREHISTORIC, a list of Pennsylvania forts is at http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/pa/1pa/1picts/frontierforts/frontierforts.htm, West Virginia forts at http://www.rootsweb.com/~wvwags/forts.txt. For specific French details see http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/6750/links.htm and http://www.mlrmag.com/pubaddnl/TonyG/french.htm, a specialist list of Florida forts ia at http://www.treasurelore.com/florida/florida_forts.htm, New York forts are at http://www.dmna.state.ny.us/forts/fortsA_D/anneFort.htm; The War of 1812 Website, Bob Garcia Fort Amherstburg in the War of 1812 at, http://www.warof1812.ca/fortambg.htm; and for more Canadian forts see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hudson%27s_Bay_Company_forts. I also consulted authors like Frank McLynn,1759, the Year Britain Became Master of the World; Pierre Berton, The Invasion of Canada, 1812-1813; and Fred Anderson, Crucible of War for more specific details. A full list of useful websites may be found in the bibliography under Internet Citations.

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