BNA ORDERS OF BATTLE (ORBATS)
The major North American military developments were: the European power struggle for colonies continuing through the Caribbean; the British and French Seven Years War (known as the French and Indian War by Americans); The American Revolution (also known in America as the War of Independence); and the War of 1812. These military struggles variously involved the British, French, and Spanish military forces to some degree. I have therefore used the same data-structure style across the several Orders of Battle (ORBATS) at this site to facilitate comparisons. I have grouped the contending allies which fought in the American Revolution, since their individual efforts compounded problems for military commanders. The ORBAT represents the specific units commanded by commanders in specific wars, battles, general activities, areas, or periods of time.
A series of ORBATS follows for various campaigns in British North America.
Long Island, New York Assault Landing: 22 August 1776
Early on 22nd August 1776, Vice Admiral Richard Howe landed Major General Charles Cornwallis and British and Hessen light infantry, grenadiers, jägers on Long Island at Gravesend Bay. Cornwallis led the landing and cleared the beaches south of the American fortifications. Lieutenant General William Howe followed when the beach was cleared. A total of 15,000 men were landed on 22 August, and the Germans followed on 25 August and raised the total British strength to 22,000 men.
Assault Landing Commander Major General Charles Cornwallis, II Earl of Cornwallis
Commander-in-Chief Lieutenant General Sir William Howe, KB; 2i/c Major General Henry Clinton; Major General Hugh Percy, 3 Baron Percy
Hessen Division: Oberbefehlshaber Generalleutnant Leopold von Heister, Freiherr; Hesse-Kassel Chasseurs; Hesse-Kassel Artillery Korps, Feldjäger Korps
Battle of Long Island: 27 August 1776
General Howe began his attack against General George Washington with flanking night moves on 26 August prior to the main attack on 27 August. General Clinton made a long night march around the north-eastern end of the American defences, with Loyalist guides. There were three direct routes from the landing area and Howe accepted Clinton's plan for a diversionary attack on the British left by Major General Grant, with Lieutenant General von Heister's Hessians in the centre, and the main force under Howe on the right. Clinton's successful flanking manoeuver forced the American Major General Sullivan to withdraw and his inexperienced troops broke and ran for Brooklyn. On the American right Brigadier General Lord Stirling also withdrew to the Brooklyn defences.
First Line: Commander Lieutenant General Sir William Howe, KB
Howe's Second Line: Major General Hugh Percy, 3 Baron Percy;
Reserve: Commander Major General Charles Cornwallis, II Earl of Cornwallis; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, Bn Grenadiers, 33rd Regt of Foot, 42nd Regt of Foot
Centre Axis: Hessen Division: Oberbefehlshaber Generalleutnant Leopold von Heister, Freiherr, 2i/c Generalmajor Wilhelm von Knyphausen, Baron; Hesse-Kassel Chasseurs; Hesse-Kassel Artillery Korps, Feldjäger Korps
Philadelphia Campaign: 1777
Commander Major General Sir William Howe
Guards Brigade : Commander Brigadier General Edward Mathew; 1st Bn Guards, 2nd Bn Guards, 1st Bn Composite Grenadiers, 2nd Bn Composite Grenadiers, 1st Bn Composite Light Infantry, 2nd Bn Composite Light Infantry, 1st American Regiment (Queen's Rangers)
1st Brigade: Commander Major General John Vaughan; 4th Regt of Foot, 23rd Regt of Foot, 28th Regt of Foot, 49th Regt of Foot
2nd Brigade: Commander Major General James Grant; 5th Regt of Foot, 10th Regt of Foot, 27th Regt of Foot, 40th Regt of Foot, 55th Regt of Foot
3rd Brigade: Commander Major General Charles Grey; 15th Regt of Foot, 17th Regt of Foot, 42nd Regt of Foot, 44th Regt of Foot
4th Brigade: Commander Brigadier General James Agnew; 33rd Regt of Foot, 37th Regt of Foot, 46th Regt of Foot, 64th Regt of Foot
5th Brigade: Commander Brigadier General Alexander Leslie, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, Bn 71st Regt of Foot (Fraser's Highlanders)
Hessen Brigade: Commander Generalmajor Johann D von Stirn; Regt Lieb Infanterie, Regt von Donop, Regt von Mirbach, Regt von Loos
British Reserve: 16th Regt Light Dragoons, Ferguson's Rifle Corps
Hessen Reserve: Kommandant Oberst Karl von Donop; Hesse-Kassel-Anspach Jäger Korps, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, Bns Hesse-Kassel Grenadieres
1 See Craig L Symonds, A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution; Stuart Reid, King George's Army, 1740-1793, Vol 2, pp. 15-23; and David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing, pp. 31-50. I have also used Internet-accessible versions of regimental histories and specialty web sites such as British Army Roll of Regiments at Regiments.org, British battles.com, American Revolution 1776-1781.org, theamericanrevolution.org/battles, Orders of Battle at orbat.com, www.britishbattles.com. The War of 1812 at casebook..org/battles, French and Indian War at war of 1812.ca, War of 1812 Website, General Brock.com, the War of 1812 at multied.com, Individual Battles and Campaigns - From Colony to Country, the National Library of Canada at nlc-bnc.ca, Behind the Scenes at Louisbourg The Compagnies franches de la Marine of 18th Century Louisbourg, Timeline War of 1812 at the Society of the War of 1812.org, Canadian Intelligence Branch History at Ironsides.8m.com, the American Revolution 1776-1781. and it's era Maps and Charts of North America at Memory.loc.gov, The American War of Independence at Independence.com. British Forces in the American Revolutionary War, 1777 Campaign at, http://orbat.com/site/history/historical/uk/revolutionarywar.html; Long Island order of battle at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island_order_of_battle; The American Revolutionary War at, http://www.myrevolutionarywar.com/units-british/; List of British units in the American Revolutionary War at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_British_Forces_in_the_American_Revolutionary_War; BritishBattles.com at, http://www.britishbattles.com/; Battle of Long Island at, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Battle_of_Long_Island#British_Army.
2 Clinton's approach march was through forests and the troops had to cut their way with axes and saws. The suprise march enabled the British to attack the American line simultaneously from both the front and rear.
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