SPANISH MILITARY UNITS IN AMERICA

Military Background

Castile

 

In 1740, Spain had 9,000 armed men on the Spanish Main (defined as the the Caribbean Sea bounded by South/Central/North American mainland shores).[1] I have identified the Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de La Habana Cuba as the earliest Spanish (actually it was Castillian) unit which fought in North America. In 1515, el Fijo de La Habana was a collection of local infantry companies permanently based in Havana.[2] With various name changes, the Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de La Habana Cuba remained in Cuba for nearly four centuries until it was finally disbanded in 1898. I have chosen to use the geographical definition of North America, which includes the Caribbean and Central America. I have further broadened the foregoing definition to include South America, since the Europeans felt that the Americas were all one.[3]

The Spanish had developed a military society which had successfully defeated the Arab and Moorish occupation in 1492 and were well placed to dominate the native Americans.[4] The early Spanish expeditions to America included de-facto mercenaries and these Spanish soldiers had an enormous influence on the shaping of not only Mexico (Nueva Españia), Florida, and the Caribbean (as well as Central and South America), but also British North America. Spain also had a little-known, active role in the American Revolution. Many of the units below participated in American wars and tied Britain down in Europe and in the Caribbean.[5]

The Spanish empire, of course, stretched from the Philippines, through much of the present United States, Mexico, the Caribbean, down most of South America, the Netherlands, much of Italy, into Portugal and Africa, and across a number of Mediterranean and Atlantic islands.[6] Spain needed a big army! Spanish colonial military archives date from 1596 and cover South and Central America, Louisiana, Florida, Mexico, the Philippines and specific unit histories. (Note the Spanish numbered their regiments, but their numbering system is complex.)

The conquistadores extended Spain's military presence. In February 1519, Hernán Cortés assembled 11 ships in Cuba to take his army to Mexico. The army consisted of 533 soldiers, which included 32 crossbow-men, 13 arquebusiers, 16 horses, plus 200 Cuban Indians, and 110 sailors. In addition, the fleet had 10 heavy guns, four lighter falconets, and a good supply of ammunition. Prescott further describes that on 25 March 1519 this force defeated a Mayan army of 40,000 in the Yucatan. The cavalry were a great success and terrified the Tabascan Indians. In 1520, Cortés was recalled to Cuba, but he defeated the recalling 900-man force, which then joined him. Having destroyed Aztec Mexico, Cortés began a four-year process of consolidation during which he built a fortress and decided to defend it with artillery. Cortés was short of both cannons and ammunition but cast 70 guns of copper and tin; and manufactured his own gunpowder. He used available nitrate and took sulphur from the live volcano Popocatepetl. Moreover, in order to extend his military capabilities Cortés initiated European discipline and military training for the subdued local Aztec, Tlascalan Indians. Spaniards had initiative![7]

The Spanish Army

The Spanish army was developed from the Reconquista crusade-era Military Orders. The linkage was directly to the church and helps explain the religious focus of early Spanish explorations in the Americas.[8] In 1534, cavalry was the key arm and deployed in 'bandes', but for infantry Spain hired the Swiss (beginning in 1483) and Dutch (from 1718) regiments. There were 100,000 Swiss mercenaries available in 1770; but the Spanish answer was the development of an army supported by Royal Arsenals and standing cavalry.

Philip II established the first Royal Arsenal of Cavalry in 1572 at Redondo in Andalusia. The Spanish wanted a trained military reserve, but arrangements were complex and the cavalry were not paid. Spain was permanently at war in the 1500s with the only regular army other than the Ottoman Turks. The Spanish created training schools, a military career, good generals, and a European military model. The Tercio was the basic Spanish infantry unit from 1534 to 1704. It consisted of a permanent staff (a novelty in 1534) and a variable number of combat companies. The Tercio was an administrative as well as a tactic unit, especially in the XVI century. The permanent staff was an innovation in 1534-1536 when the Tercios were created. The staff comprised the administrative function (payment, medical, etc) and military command. The Tercio had two different types of companies: one of pike-men and another of harquebusiers. In 1704, King Philip V replaced the term tercio with regiment of infantry using the French model of 1 or 2 battalions of 636 men (11 line companies and 1 Grenadier company).[9]

Spanish troops fought in Spain, Oran, Tripoli, Italy, Ireland, France, Central America, South America, and in the Netherlands. Under Charles V (1519-1558), Spain and the Holy Roman Empire were temporarily united, and even into the seventeenth Century Spanish and Imperial forces co-operated. Franco-Dutch-Spanish conflict was renewed through the 30 Years War (1618-1648). However, in 1643, Spain was defeated by France and her deterioration continued. In 1715, Spain had 52,000 men in 100 infantry battalions, organised in 63 regiments. In 1802 there was a war-establishment of 144,448 men in 64 regiments. In 1715, Spanish infantry regiments reflected her former empire: 37 Spanish, 14 Dutch-Walloon, six Italian, and five Irish. Each battalion of 520 men was commanded by a colonel and had 13 companies. Spanish weapons were based on the pike and crossbow until the early 1500s when early firearms were introduced. The initial gun was an arquebus (the soldier an arquebusier): it was a smooth-bore weapon with a matchlock and was fired with a supporting pole. By the 1600s, arquebuses and muskets were the prime weapons. Dragoons first appeared in Spanish ranks in the 1630s, but the infantry were the chief arm. Later, the cavalry formed from a quarter to a third of the army as in that of other nations. Spanish artillery was only rudimentary until after the Armada.

Spanish Aid to Washington

 

Regimiento América

 

The Spanish interests in British North America focused separately on both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts and Florida and Mexico changed hands several times. On the Pacific coast Alta California was not well defined in the eighteenth century, and the Russians had plans to colonize the Pacific coast. Extensive Spanish clergy missionary work led much of Spain's colonisation, but the Spanish also built a series of presidios. The presidio was a fortified military post with a formally established garrison of 5-250 soldiers. The commandant's mandate would have been to protect the local Mission, the local Spanish and Indian residents, and to 'keep the peace' in a large surrounding area.[10] A significant military presence was necessary to protect Spanish interests from the Indians, English, French, and later American encroachments. Additionally, the Spanish stole treasure from the natives of Peru and Mexico, loaded it into ships and then the English and French tried to steal the Spanish. Colonisation was evidently tough work!

France clearly overshadowed Spain in the sheer weight of her direct aid to Revolutionary America, and she easily outdid Spain in exhibitions of friendship for the Rebels. However, Spain was smarting from her losses of much of her American Empire to Britain in the Seven Years' War. No Spanish regiments served side-by-side with the Continentals as the French did at Newport, Savannah and Yorktown, but on 21 June 1779, Spain declared war against Great Britain. Spain then sent the United States hundreds of muskets, thousands of coats, 'small clothes' (waistcoats and breeches - or pants), blankets, shirts and shoes, and vast amounts of gunpowder, naval stores, copper, tin, brass cannon and horse furniture. Supplies and money channeled by Spanish officials through New Orleans and St. Louis enabled George Rogers Clark to capture Kentucky and sweep the British from much of the 'Northwest Territory'. Spanish covert support of the Revolution (both financial and logistical) however, began in 1776.

In 1779, the Governor of Luisiana, General Count Bernardo de Galvez, was ordered to recover Spanish territory siezed by Britain in 1763 in the Mississippi River Valley and Florida.[11] Galvez led a Spanish army and opened a second front against Britain, and in April 1780 Carlos III reinforced Galvez with 5,000 men in regular regiments with 2,000 more from the Caribbean. Gálvez captured Baton Rouge in 1779, Mobile in 1780, and Pensacola in 1781. In 1780, Spain sent an additional 10,000 men to the Caribbean, and blockaded Gibraltar. At Pensacola in March 1781, Gálvez had 7,000 Spanish troops were supported by 1,350 Spanish sailors, put ashore to man the big guns and serve as laborers. Another 10,000 seamen in sixteen ships-of-the-line held off relief from the sea.

Additionally, that Spanish action at Pensacola tied down 7,000 critical troops from the over-extended British and denied critical manpower to Cornwallis. Evidently, the French and Spanish had a grudge! As is implied by their unit deployments the French tied down thousands of British troops outside the critical American Revolutionary theatre.The victory at Yorktown was made secure by the Caribbean distractions of both Spain and France.

Spanish Unit Data

The following data describe the actual units.[12] Reports may describe a Regiment in action in battle being supported by apparently outside cavalry, or artillery. Sadly, these outside elements are often subordinates of the first-named unit. I have tried to exercise military judgment in reducing redundancies. I have concentrated on the regiments (the term was introduced in 1635): here were many other battalion-size units not included here. I have deliberately shown Spain's other wars to clarify the extent of European conflict outside America. I have highlighted Spanish military activity in the Americas.

The data below are intended to give some sense of the breadth of Spain's military presence in North America. It was inevitable that national claims would clash and war break out amongst Europeans. Although Spain did not deploy conquistadors to New England, her colonies in Florida and along the Mississippi did threaten the southern English colonies and the expanding colonial trade routes. In the end, like the American Monroe doctrine, the Spanish, English, and French came to see America as all - or nothing, and war was inevitable.

These units are organised alphabetically by Regimental place-name (ignoring minor grammar). I have focused on infantry regiments (not battalions), and I have not included all of the many name changes (some of which are quite minor) to save space. Their service is separated into Theatres by periods. The dates are separated by commas and individual battles are separated by semicolons. I have labeled all those regiments raised for permanent colonial duty as 'de ultramar'. I have included Mexico (Nueva España), South America and the Caribbean because the same troops had to defend government policy throughout the area. Armies were often deliberately distracted from some remote objective by an enemy to reduce their strength at the key point. (This was particularly successful ploy by the Spanish against the British in the American Revolution.)

Spanish Military Units in North America

Unit Name

Service

Cavalry

Dragoons de América (La Habana) Caribbean. Cuba.
Dragoons de Cuero del Provences Interno Probably Mexico.
Regimiento de los Voluntarios Ligeros de la Caballería de España Probably Mexico.
Guardia de Corps Español de Viceregal en España Nueva America. 1770, Mexico.
Regimiento de Lusitania de la Caballería Probably Mexico.
Dragoons Ligero de España Nueva Probably Mexico.
Linea Regimiento de la Caballería de Montesa Probably Mexico.
Milicia de los Dragoons del San Luis Probably Mexico.
Regimiento de la Caballería de Santiago Probably Mexico.
Regimiento de la infantería de Soria American Revolution.
Tejas Español Hussars America. Mexico and Texas.
Décimosexto Regimiento de la infantería de Toledo American Revolution.

Regimiento de los Lanceros de Veracruz

c1767, Regimiento de los Lanceros de Veracruz

America. c1767-c1850, Mexico.
Regimiento de Dragoons de Villaviciosa Unknown.

Artillery

Cuerpo Real de la Artillería

America. 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge; 1781, Luisiana. 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Artillería de Espanoloa

Probably Mexico.

Engineers

Cuerpo Real de Ingenieros

American Revolution.

Infantry

Voluntarios Acadienses y del Alemán

Commander: General Bernardo de Galvez

1779, Voluntarios Acadienses y del Alemán, c1800, Disbanded.

America. 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Alava nº 22

1636, Tercio de Voluntarios de Alava, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Borbón nº 17, 1972, Regimiento de Infantería Alava nº 22, 1965, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Ligera La Albuera nº 26

1802, Batallón Ligero de Campo-Mayor,

1965, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Cazadores de Montaña Barcelona nº 63.

America. 1821-1822, Peru. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de Alcántara nº 33

1856, Batallón de Infantería Nº 5 Provisional, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería Alcántara nº 33, 1965, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1874-1878; 1878-1882; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento Alemán de la Infantería de la Milicia De la Costa, Luisiana

c1768, Regimiento Alemán De la Infantería De la Milicia De la Costa, Luisiana.

America. 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Alfonos XIII de Ultramar

Commander: 1815, Coronel D. Tomás Morales

1815, Regimiento de Infantería Veterano del Rey, 1890, Regimiento de Infantería Alfonso XIII nº 62 (Cuba), 1899, Disbanded.

America, 1815-1822. Venezuela and Colombia. the Caribbean. 1851-1854; 1863-1865; 1868-1878; 1879-1882; 1895-1898; Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Almansa nº 18

Commander: 1709, Coronel D. Juan González

1709, Regimiento de Infantería de Almansa, 1833, Regimiento de Infantería Almansa nº 18, 1960, Regimiento de Cazadores de Montaña nº 6, 1960, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería América nº 66

c1705, Regimiento Real de la Infantería de America, 1765, Regimiento de América, 1966, Regimiento Cazadores de Montaña America nº 66.

America. 1764-1771, Mexico; 1766, War on the town of Los Angeles; 1813-1814, Argentina. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de Andalucía nº 52

1632, Tercio del Duque de Osuna, 1893, Regimiento de Andalucía nº 52, 1931, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1877-1879; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Aragón nº 17

Commander: 1715, Coronel D. Manuel de Sada y Antiñon

1715, Regimiento de Aragón, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Infante nº 5, 1984, Regimiento de Infantería Aragón nº 17.

America. 1741, Colombia; 1781. 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Asia nº 55

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Asia nº 59, 1931, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento Asturias nº 31

1703, Regimiento de Infantería Asturias nº 31, 1965, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizada Asturias nº 31.

America. 1816-1822, Mexico. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Bailén nº 60

1808, 2,500 men

1808, Regiment of Bailén nº 43, 1814, Regiment of Bailén nº 48, 1818, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de Baleares nº 42

Commander: 1877, Coronel D. Lorenza Ochotorena Sartorius

1877, Regimiento de Infantería de Baleares nº 42,

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento Barbastro nº 43

1793, Batallón de Cazadores de Montaña de la Ciudad de Barbastro, 1794, Regimiento de Cazadores Voluntarios de Barbastro nº 44, 1965, Regimiento de Infantería Barbastro nº 43, 1986, Disbanded.

America. 1815-1821, Venezuela. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Borbón nº 17

Commander: 1793, Coronel D. Claudio Rouvroy, Marqués de Saint Simon

1793, Legión Real de los Pirineos, 1878, Regimiento de Infantería Borbón nº 17, 1931, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Burgos nº 36

1694, Tercio Provincial Nuevo de Burgos, 1965, Regimiento San Quintín nº 32, 1965, Disbanded.

America. 1816-1824, Venezuela Ecuador Chile. Caribbean. 1824; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Cádiz nº 41

Commander: 1703, D. Jerónimo de la Puente y Herrera

1703, Tercio de la Armada, 1943, Regimiento de Infantería Cádiz nº 41, 1960, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1855, Puerto Rico; 1863-1865, Dominican Republic; 1868, Puerto Rico; 1869-1870; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Canarias nº 43

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Canarias nº 43, 1946, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Cantabria nº 39

1703, Tercio de Guipuzcoa, 1741, Regimiento de Cantabria nº 24, 1814, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Tiradores de Cataluña and Regimientos Iberia, 1814, Regimiento de Línea Cantabria nº 25, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Bailén nº 24, 1959, Regimiento de Infantería Motorizada Cantabria nº 39, 1960, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1790-1793, Puerto Rico and Antilles. America. 1816-1824, Chile and Peru. Caribbean. 1851; 1874-1875; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Cartagena nº 70

1716, Compañías Fijas de Cartagena de Indias, 1773, Regimiento Fijo de Cartagena de Indias, 1919, Regimiento de Infantería Cartagena nº 70, 1931, Disbanded.

America/Caribbean. 1740-1741, Colombia; 1780-1781, Venezuela; 1780-1781, Panama; 1780-1781, Cayman Islands; 1780-1781, Chile; 1780-1781, Carolina; 1810-1818, Colombia; Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Voluntarios de Castilla nº 16

1793, Regimiento de Voluntarios de Castilla, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Gravelinas nº 41, 1965, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizada Castilla nº 16

America. 1815-1821, Mexico. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Primera Compañia Franca de los Voluntarios de Cataluña de Ultramar

Commanders: 1767, Capitáns Agustin Callis, Pedro Alberni

1767, Primera Compañia Franca de Voluntarios de Cataluña, 1815, Disbanded.

America. 1767-1771, Mexican Sonoran Desert Expedition; 1768, Defeated Pima Indians; 1769-1772, Built Presidios San Diego and Monterrey in California; 1772-1789, Garrison San Blas, Mesa del Tonati and Real del Monte; 1789, Built Presidio San Miguel at Nootka on Vancouver Island British Columbia; 1790-1794, Garrison Juan de Fuca Strait, British Columbia, Canada visit Alaska; 1792, Added artillery battery; 1794-1795, Alta California; (1795, Last Nootka detachment); 1803-1815, Mexico.

Segundo Compañia Franca de los Voluntarios de Cataluña de Ultramar

Commander: CapitánsPedro Fages, Esteban Sola, Pedro Nata Vinolas

1772, Segundo Regimiento.de Voluntarios de Cataluna, 1773, Regimiento de Guadalajara, c1815, Disbanded.

America. 1777, Mexican Sonoran Desert; 1778-1781, Arizona Battles with Apache Indians; 1781-1782, Colorado Battles with Yuma Indians; December 1781, Defeated Yuma Indians; 1782-c1798, Mexican Sonoran Desert.

Regimiento de Infantería Ceriñola nº 51

Commander: 1877, Coronel D. Angel Carrasco Millán

1877, Regimiento de Infantería de Canarias Peninsular nº 43, 1945, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería La Constitución nº 29

1812, Batallón de Dispersos, 1841, Regimiento de Infantería La Constitución nº 29, 1931, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Córdoba nº 10

Commander: 1566, D. Lope de Figueroa

1566, Tercio de Figueroa, 1603, Tercio Viejo de la Armada Real del Mar Océano, 1664, Tercio Provincial de Córdoba, 1718, Regimiento de Infantería Córdoba nº 6, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Infantería Reina nº 2, 1965, Amalgamated with Regimiento Nápoles nº 24, 1985, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado Córdoba nº 10.

America. 1634-1639; Brazil and Chile; 1776-1777, Brazil. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Cortés Mexican Expedición

533 Spanish troops with 16 horses and 10 cannons

Deployed in Mexico, Honduras & Cuba

Commander: 1519-1536, Governor and Captain General Don Hernán Cortés Marques del Valle de Oaxaca.

America. 1519-1524, Conquest of Mexico (Nueva España); 1519, Defeated 40,000-man Mayan army in Yucatan; 1520 Defeated Spanish demand for Cortés' surrender and added 900 men; December 1520-13 August 1521, Siege and Capture of Aztec capital Tenochtitlan (Mexico City); 1524, Honduras; 1535-1536, Baja California.

Regimiento de Infantería Covadonga nº 5

1734, Milicias Provinciales, 1846, Regimiento de Inafantería de Reserva nº 1, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Asturias nº 31, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería Covadonga nº 5, 1965, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1896-1899, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Cuba nº 65 de Ultramar

Commander: 1825, Comandante D. Joaquín Cos Cayón

Deployed in Cuba, Dominican Republic

1825, Batallón Ligero Peninsular de España nº 4, 1892, Regimiento de Infantería Cuba nº 65, 1898, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1850-1854, Anti-pirate operations; 1863-1868, Dominican Republic; 1868-1878; 1878-1880; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería España nº 18

1776, Tercio de Portugal, 1668, Tercio de Provincial de Valladolid, 1691, Tercio Provincial de los Verdes Viejos, 1707, Regimiento de Córdoba nº 3, 1718, Regimiento de España nº 1, 1984, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizada España nº 18.

America. 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 7 January 1781, Defended Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento Fijo de Extremadura nº 15

1641, Tercio de las Milicias de Badajoz y Llerena, 1960, Agrupación de Infantería Extremadura nº 15a, 1985, Disbanded.

America. 1782-1790, Dominican Republic; 1790, Peru; 1813-1822, Mexico. Caribbean.1896-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Fernando VII de Ultramar

Deployed in Mexico, Peru

1808, Regimiento de Infantería Fernando VII, 1824, Regimiento de Infantería Fernando VII, 1824, Disbanded.

America. 1812-1822, Mexico; 1816-1824, Peru.

Regimiento de Infantería Flandes nº 30

1633, Tercio de García, 1715, Regimiento de Infantería de Cuenca, 1986, Regimiento de Infantería mixto Flandes nº 30, 1996, Disbanded.

Caribbean.1896-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Galicia nº 64

1566, Tercio Ordinario del Estado de Milán, 1734, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Badajoz, 1996, Regimiento de Cazadores de Montaña Galicia nº 64.

America. 1776-1778, Brazil. Caribbean.1851, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Mixta Garellano nº 45

Commander: 1877, Coronel D. Luis Beltrán y Entriaguez

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Garellano nº 45, 1996, Regimiento de Infantería Mixta Garellano n 45.

Caribbean.1896-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Gerona nº 22

Commander: 1792, Coronel D. Francisco Martí

1792, Regimiento de Voluntarios de Gerona, 1841, Regimiento de Infantería Gerona nº 22, 1951, Disbanded.

America. 1816-1824.

 

Regimiento de Infantería Granada nº 34

1657, Tercio del Casco de Granada, 1704, Regimiento del Casco de Granada, 1985, Regimiento Mixto de Infantería de Granada nº 34.

America. 1813-1821, Venezuela and Colombia. Caribbean.1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Granada Expedicionario de Ultramar

Deployed in Venezuela, Puerto Rico

1808, Regimiento Granada nº 12, 1832, Regimiento de Infantería de Línea Granada Expedicionario (Puerto Rico), 1838, Disbanded.

America/Caribbean. 1813-1815, Venezuela; 1816-1818, Puerto Rico; 1818-1821, Venezuela; 1821-1838, Puerto Rico.

Regimiento de Infantería de Gravelinas nº 41

1877, Regimiento de Infanetría Baleares nº 42, 1938, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Infantería Castilla nº 16, 1943, Regimiento de Infantería Santa María de la Cabeza nº 58, 1960, Disbanded.

Caribbean.1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Guadalajara nº 20

Commander: General Bernardo Galvez

1657, Tercio de Benavente, 1710, Regimiento de Infantería Guadalajara, 1810, Amalgamated with Reunión Murciana, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Mallorca nº 13, 1960, Regimiento de Infantería Guadalajara nº 20, 1984, Disbanded.

America, 1768-1780, Brazil; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola; 1781, Providence Island. Caribbean. 1895-1896, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Guipúzcoa nº 53

1709, Regimiento de Infantería Nuevo de Guipúzcoa, 1892, Regimiento de Infantería de Guipuzcoa nº 53, 1931, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1896, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de La Habana de Ultramar

Locale Cuba, Mexico, Bahamas, Florida, Luisiana, Jamaica, Dominican Republic

Commanders: 1515, Coronel D. Cristóbal Pizarro Mella, 1781, General Bernardo Galvez

1515, Compañías de Infantería de La Habana, 1585, Compañías Presidiarias de La Habana, 1629, Tercio de La Habana, 1875, Regimiento de Infantería de La Habana nº 6, 1898, Disbanded.

Caribbean/America. 1628-1631, Fought Cuba and Mexico anti-pirate campaign; 1683, Bahamas; 1706, St Augustine Florida; 1723, Pensacola-Florida Cuba and Mexico; 1738; 1741; 1742, Cuba; 1778, Florida; 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola; May 1782, Captured the Bahamas; 1793-1796, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1811, Slave riots Cuba; 1828-1829, Mexico; 1842;1854, Slave riots Cuba; 1863-1865, Santo Domingo- Dominican Republic; 1868-1878; 1878-1880; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Guatemala Caribbean

Batallón de Negros de La Habana de Ultramar

Locale Cuba

c1763, Batallón de Negros de La Habana, c1785, Disbanded.

Caribbean. c1763-c1785, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Hibernia

Irish troops

Commander: 1709, Coronel D. Lucas Patiño Marqués de Castelar

1709, Regimiento de Castelar, 1709, Regimiento de Hibernia, 1815, Regimiento de Infantería Hibernia nº 24, 1818, Disbanded.

America. 1775, Based in Cuba with detachments in Louisiana; 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Infante nº 5

Commander: 1808, Coronel D. Vicente Amat

1808, Regimiento del Infante D. Carlos 1º Gemelo, 1931, Regimiento de Infantería nº 5, 1931, Disbanded

Caribbean. Cuba, 1895-1896.

Regimiento de Infantería Inmemorial del Rey

1634, 3,500 men

Commander: 1710, Coronel Conde de Fernan-Nuñez

1632, Unidad del Ciudad de Almansa, 1640, Regimiento de la Guardia del Rey, 1662, Tercio Ordinario de Infantería, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Infantería Wad-Ras nº 5o, 1995, Regimiento de Infantería Inmemorial del Rey nº 1 del Cuartel General del Ejército.

America. 1781-1782. 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola's Forts of Media luna and San Jorge; Caribbean. 1781, Puerto Rico. America. 1782, Conquest of Saint Augustíne. Caribbean. 1895-1898.

Regimiento de Infantería Irlanda

Irish troops

Commander: 1709, Coronel D. Francisco Wachop

1688, Regimiento de la Guardias de la Reina de Inglaterra, 1709, Regimiento de Wachop, 1815, Regimiento de Infantería Irlanda nº 24, 1818, Disbanded.

America. 1775, Based in Cuba with detachments in Louisiana; 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Isabel II nº 32

1833, Batallón de Tiradores de Isabel II, 1875, Regimiento de Infantería Isabel II nº 32, 1931, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1869-1874; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Isabel la Católica nº 29

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Luzón nº 58, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Zamora nº 8, 1987, Regimiento de Infantería Ligera Aerotransportable Isabel la Católica nº 29.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Isabel la Católica de Ultramar

Locales: Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Cuba, Dominican Republic

1816, Regimiento de Infantería de la Reina Doña Isabel (Venezuela), 1892, Regimiento de Infantería Isabel la Católica nº 75 (Cuba), 1898, Disbanded.

America. 1816-1822, Venezuela; 1816-1822, Colombia; 1816-1822, Peru. Caribbean. 1863-1865, Dominican Republic; 1868-1878; 1878-1880; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Lealtad nº 30

1810, Batallón de la Lealtad, 1883, Regimiento de Infantería Lealtad nº 30, 1931, Disbanded

America. 1824-1826, Peru; 1827-1829, Venezuela. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería León nº 38

1694, Tercio Provincial Nuevo de León, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Saboya nº 6, 1965, Regimiento de Infantería león nº 38, 1985, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1744-1782, Martinique. America. 1812-1821, Colombia. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de la Infantería de la Línea Murtia de Ultramar

Probably provincial unit

c1765, Regimiento de la Infantería de la Línea Murtia

America. 1775-1781.

Regimiento de Infantería de Luchana nº 28

1808, Batallón de Tiradores de Ledesma, 1841, Regimiento de Infantería Luchana nº 28, 1960 Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1896-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento Fijo de Infanteria de Luisiana de Ultramar

Deployed in America

Commander: 1769, General Alejandro O'Reilly, 1770, Coronel Bernardo de Gálvez, 1779, Coronel Don Estevan Mire

c1769, Regimiento Fijo de Infanteria de la Luisiana, 1781, Disbanded.

American Revolution. 1779-1781. 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute Louisiana; September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge; March 1780, Siege and Capture of Mobile; 26 May-July 1780, Defence of St Louis; 2 January 1781, Battle of St Joseph; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Mallorca nº 13

Commander: 1779, General Bernardo de Gálvez

1682, Tercio Nuevo de la Armada y del Mar Océano, 1939, Regimiento de Infantería Mallorca nº 13, 1986, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizada Mallorca nº 13.

America 1779-1781. 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería María Cristina de Ultramar

Deployed in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Dominican Republic, Cuba

Commander: 1806, Coronel D. Juan Mauel Moragas

1806, Batallón Veterano de la Reina nº 2 (Venezuela), 1889, Regimiento de Infantería Maria Cristina nº 63, 1899, Disbanded.

America. 1806, Venezuela; 1815-1820, Colombia and Peru. Caribbean. 1851, Operations against pirates; 1863-1865, Dominican Republic; 1863-1868; 1878-1882; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Mérida nº 44

1705, Tercio de Araujo, 1931, Amalgamated with Ferrol nº 65, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería Mérida nº 44, 1983, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1896-1898, Cuba.

Milicia Urbana de Méjico de Ultramar

c1740, Milicia Urbana de Méjico.

America. 1740?

Voluntarios Del Río de Mississippi de Ultramar

c1777, Voluntarios Del Río de Mississippi, c1803,, Disbanded.

America. 1779-1803?

Regimiento de Infantería de Molina

Commander: 1705, Coronel D. Juan Belloto Dezcállar

1705, Batallón de Voluntarios de Molina,
1707, Regimiento de Voluntarios de Molina nº 46, 1808, Batallón de Voluntarios de Molina,
1809, Regimiento de Infantería de Molina, 1721, Disbanded.

War of Spanish Succession, 1705-1714. Portugal, 1808-1814.

Regimiento de Murcia nº 42

1694, Tercio Provincial Nuevo de Murcia, 1704, Regimiento Provincial de Murcia, 1931, Amalgamated with Zaragoza nº 12, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería Murcia nº 42, 1987, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1760-1762, Cuba. America. 1777, Argentina. Caribbean. 1896-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Nápoles nº 24

1567, Tercio Nuevo de Nápoles, 1718, Regimiento de la Corona nº 7, 1960, Regimiento de Infantería Nápoles nº 24, 1865, Disbanded.

America. 1821-1822, Peru; 1823, Venezuel and Colombia.

Regimiento de la infantería de Navarra nº 25

1632, Regimiento del Condestable de Navarra, 1931,Regimiento de Infantería nº 25, 1960, Disbanded.

America. 1780-1781. 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Las Navas nº 12

Commander: 1804, Brigadier D. Pedro de Grimaret

1804, Tercio de Tejas, 1968, Regimiento de Infantería Las Navas nº 12, 1985, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1805-1806, Martinique and the Bahamas; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Nuevo Orleans de la Milicia Disciplinada de Ultramar

c1777, Regimiento de Nuevo Orleans de la Milicia Disciplinada.

America. 7 January 1781, Defeated seige of The Village at Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Ordenes Militares nº 37

1793, Regimiento de Infantería Ordenes nº 40, 1931, Amalgamated with Burgos nº 36, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería Ordenes Militares nº 37, 1985, Disbanded.

America. 1815-1822; Mexico.

Regimiento de Infantería Otumba nº 49

Commander: 1877, Coronel D. Vicente Pacheco Llauradó

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Otumba nº 51, 1936, Regimiento de Infantería nº 9, 1939, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería La Palma nº 53

1896, Batallón Provisional de Canarias, 1965, Regimiento de Infantería La Palma nº 53 Plana Mayor Reducida, 1987, Batallón de Infantería Motorizable Santa Cruz de La Palma.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Pardos Cazadores de Yucatan y Campeche de Ultramar

May have been native troops

Deployed in Mexico

1823, Strength 3 bns of active militia authorised in Yucatan

c1823, Pardos Cazadores de Yucatan y Campeche.

America. 1823-c185?, Mexico.

Regimiento de Infantería de Milicias Pardos de Merida y Yucatan de Ultramar

(May have been native troops)

Deployed in Mexico, America

c1767, Regimiento de Infantería de Milicias Pardos de Merida y Yucatan

America. c1767, Mexico; 1792, Captured Balize Station and routed Louisiana pirates.

Regimiento Provincial de Patria de Ultramar

Deployed in Bolivia?

c1776, Regimiento Provincial de Patria

America. Bolivia?

Regimiento de Infantería Pavía nº 19

Commander: 1877, Coronel D. Tomás Hurtado Breganciano

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Pavía nº 50, Amalgamated with Regimiento Extremadura nº 15, 1966, Regimiento de Infantería Motorizada Pavía n19.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Compania Segundo en Pimeria Alta de Ultramar

c1770, Compania Segundo en Pimeria Alta.

America. c1771-c1783, Mexico.

Regimiento de Infantería de Portugal nº 11

1643, Tercio de Valladares, 1741, Regimiento de Infantería de Portugal nº 11, 1749, Disbanded.

America. 1741-1743, South America.

Regimiento de Infantería de la Princesa nº 4

Commander: 1765, D. Carlos Manuel Dongo

1765, Regimiento de Infantería de la Princesa, 1936, Regimiento de Infantería Tarifa nº 11, 1936, Disbanded.

America, 1777-1778. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de la Princesa nº 7 de Ultramar

Locale, Philippines

1851, Regimiento de Granaderos de Luzón (Manila), 1875, Regimiento de Infantería de la Princesa nº 7, 1898, Disbanded.

Did not deploy to the Americas.

Regimiento El Príncipe nº 3

Commander: 1537, Don Rodrigo de Ripalda, 1779-1781, General Bernardo de Galvez

1537, Tercio Ordinario del Estado de Milán, 1776, Regimiento de Infantería del Príncipe nº 2, 1808, Amalgamated with Regimiento Alcázar de San Juan and Regimiento tercero de voluntarios de Navarra, 1818, Amalgamated with Regimiento Borbón, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Infantería Tarragona Nº 78, 1988, Regimiento de Infantería Ligera Aerotransportable Príncipe nº 3.

America 1768/79-1781. 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de Puerto Rico de Ultramar

Deployed in Puerto Rico

1741, Batallón Fijo de Puerto Rico, 1764, Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de Puerto Rico, 1893, Batallón de Cazadores Alfonso XIII nº 24, 1898, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1793, Antilles; 1794; 1863-1865, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1797, San Juan de Puerto Rico; 1815, Venezuela; 1815, Colombia; 1868, Puerto Rico; 1877-1878; 1878-1879, Cuba; 1898, San Juan de Puerto Rico

Regimiento de Infantería de la Reina nº 2

1509, Tercio de Lombardía, 1705, Regimiento de Lombardia, 1977, Regimiento de Infantería de la Reina nº 2.

America, 1776-1777, Brazil. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de la Reina nº 2 Gemelo de Ultramar

Deployed in Mexico, Panama

1764, Regimiento Real de la Reina (Veracruz-Nueva España), 1769, Regimiento Real de la Reina (Panamá-Nueva España), 1769, Disbanded.

America, 1764-1769. Mexico, 1764-1767. Panama, 1769.

Regimiento de Saboya nº 6

1808, Strength three bns

1537, Tercio de Saboya, 1702, Amalgamated with Regimiento de la Victoria, 1718, Regimiento de Saboya nº 22, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento León nº 38, 1944, Regimiento de Infantería Saboya nº 6, 1965, 1986, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado Saboya nº 6.

America, 1768-1780. Mexico and Venezuela; Brazil; 1780, Captured la Paz Mexico; 1813-1821, Mexico. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Sagunto de Ultramar

America.

Regimiento de Infantería Sana Hermandad de Ultramar America.

Regimiento de Infantería San Fernando nº 11

1808, Tercio del Ampurdán nº 1, 1811, Regimiento de San Fernando de Infantería de Línea, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería San Fernando nº 11, 1985, Disbanded.

America. Mexico. 1816-1817. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de la Milicia de San Luis de Ultramar

America. 1779-1780. September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge; March 1780, Seige and Capture of Mobile; 26 May 1780, Battle of St Louis.

Regimiento de Infantería San Marcial nº 7

Coronel D. Juan Ordóñez

1795, Regimiento de Voluntarios de la Corona nº 47, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento de la Lealtad nº 30, 1936, Regimiento de Infantería San Marcial nº 7, 1985, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería San Quintín nº 32

Commander: 1868, Coronel D. José Bull y Estil

1868, Regimiento de Infantería San Quintín nº 49, 1863, Regimiento de Infantería San Quintín nº 32, 1987, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Santa Fe de Ultramar

Deployed in Venezuela, Colombia

Commander: 1781, Coronel D. Juan Jacinto Vázquez de Vargas

1781, Regimiento Auxiliar de Santa Fe, 1808, Regimiento de Infantería de Santa Fe (Bogotá), 1821, Disbanded.

America. 1781-1886, South America; 1815-1821, Venezuela; 1815-1821, Colombia.

Regimiento de Infantería Santiago de Chile de Ultramar

Deployed in Chile

Commander: 1589, D. Alonso Gómez de la Cruz

1589, Tercio de Escolares de Santiago, 1654, Batallón de Infantería Fijo de Santiago de Chile, 1758, Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de Santiago de Chile, 1812, Regimiento de Infantería Santiago de Chile, 1812, Disbanded.

America. 1650, South America; 1668; 1810-1812, Chile.

Regimiento de Infantería Sevilla nº 40

1658, Tercio de Infantería de la Armada del Mar Océano, 1664, Tercio Provincial de Madrid, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Cartagena nº 70, 1943, Regimiento de Infantería Sevilla nº 40, 1960, Disbanded.

America. 1765-1781. 1777, Brazil; 26 May 1780, Battle of St Louis; 2 January 1781, Battle of St Joseph; March 1781, Captured Fort Natchez; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de Sicilia nº 67

1534, Gran Tercio Viejo de Sicilia, 1596, Tercio Fijo de Sicilia, 1707, Regimiento de Sicilia, 1966, Regimiento de Cazadores de Montaña Tercio Viejo de Sicilia nº 67.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Simancas nº 4

Commander: c1568-c1572, Don Lelio Grissoni

c1568, Tercio Viejo de la Armada del Mar Océano de Infantería Napolitana, 1707, Regimiento de Nápoles nº 12, 1943, Regimiento de Infantería Simancas nº 4, 1965, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1861, Saint Dominique; 1868-1878, 1885-1899, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Simancas de Ultramar

Commander: 1829, Coronel D. Cosme Alvarez

1829, Regimiento Ligero Peninsular de Nápoles, 1889, Regimiento de Infantería Simancas nº 64, 1898, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1851-1855, Countered pirates of Narciso López in Cuba; America. 1861, Méjico; 1863-1865. Caribbean. 1868-1878, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1878-1880; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Soria nº 9

1537, Strength three bns

Commander: 1509, D. Pedro de Zamudio, 1591, Luis de Velasco

1509, Tercio de Zamudio, 1513, Tercio de Nápoles, 1591, Tercio Departamental de Bramante, 1715, Regimiento de Infantería Soria nº 3, Amalgamated with Regimiento Granada nº 34, 1996, Regimiento de Infantería Ligera Soria nº 9.

America, 1779-1781. 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola; America 1783-1787, Revolt in Peru, the Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Tarragona Nº 43

Commander: 1791, Coronel Don Vicente María Cañas Portocarrero Trelles y Silva Marqués de Castrillo y de Vallecerrato

1792, Regimiento de Voluntarios de Infantería Ligera de Tarragona nº 36, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento El Príncipe nº 3, 1960, Agrupación de Infantería Mérida nº 44.

Caribbean. 1863-1864, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1869-1879; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Tetuan nº 14

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Tetuan nº 47, 1984, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizado Tetuan nº 14, 1984. Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Alcazar de Toledo nº 61

1922, Compañía de Carros Ligeros de Asalto, 1939, Regimiento de Carros de Combate nº 1, 1944, Regimiento de Infantería Acorazado Alcazar de Toledo nº 61, 1944, Amalgamated with los Regimientos de Carros de Combate Brunete nº 62 and de Carros de Combate Oviedo nº 63.

Did not deploy to the Americas.

Regimiento de Infantería Toledo nº 35

Commander: 1661, D. Diego Fernández de Vera

1661, Tercio de Vera, 1693, Tercio Provincial de los Azules Viejos, 1707, Regimiento de Infantería Toledo nº 5, 1715, Amalgamated with Regimiento Sada y Limburgo, Amalgamated with Cazadores de Chiclana nº 17, 1987, Regimiento de Infantería D.C.C. Toledo nº 35, 1987, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1760-1764, Battles of Puerto Rico and Cuba Defence of Havana. America, 1776-1780. 1777, Brazil; Conquest of Florida de Santa Pola; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería de Ultonia nº 59

Irish troops Strength 3 bns

Commander: 1709, Coronel D. Demetrio MacAulif

1709, Regimiento de MacAulif, 1718, Regimiento de Infantería fijo de Ultonia, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería de Ultonia nº 59, 1986, Disbanded.

America. 1769, Based in Cuba with detachments in Louisiana; 7 September 1779, Captured Fort Bute; 13 September 1779, Captured Baton Rouge and Fort Panmure at Natchez; 23 September-20 October 1779, 2nd Battle of Savannah; 1-14 March 1780, Siege and Capture of Fort Charlotte Mobile; 9 March-8 May 1781, Siege and Capture of Pensacola.

Regimiento de Infantería Unión 1º Gemelo Peninsular de Ultramar

Deployed in Venezuela, Perú, Cuba, Mexico, Dominican Republic

Commander: 1808, Coronel D. Pablo Morillo Morillo

1808, Regimiento de Infantería de La Unión, 1838, Regimiento de Infantería de La Unión Ligero Peninsular (Cuba), 1895, Batallón de Cazadores de La Unión nº 2 Peninsular (Cuba), 1899, Disbanded.

America, 1815-1898. 1815-1823, Venezuela; 1815-1823, Colombia; 1815-1823, Venezuela; 1815-1823, Peru. Caribbean. 1850-1855, Pacified Negro rebellion in Cuba; 1861, Méjico; 1863-1865, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1868-1878; 1879-81; 1895-98, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Valencia nº 23

1557, Milicias de la Costa de Granada, 1558, Tercio Ordinario de las Milicias de la Costa de Granada, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Andalucía nº 52, 1979, Regimiento de Infantería Valencia nº 23.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Valenncey

Commander: 1808, Coronel D. Ramón Alvear

1808, 2º Regimiento de Infantería de la Princesa, 1875, Batallón de Cazadores de la Princesa nº 25, 1879, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1875-1878, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Valladolid nº 65

1694, Tercio Provincial Nuevo de Valladolid, 1701, Tercio Provincial de los Verdes Nuevos, 1965, Regimiento de Cazadores de Alta Montaña Valladolid nº 65; 1996, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1855, Riot of Puerto Rico; 1861-1865, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1868, Puerto Rico; 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería de la Milicia de Veracruz de Ultramar

Deployed in Mexico

1823, Strength 4 bns authorised to augment active militia

c1774, Regimiento de Infantería de la Milicia de Veracruz.

America. c1774-c1850, Mexico.

Regimiento de Infantería La Victoria nº 28

1703, Tercio de Alava, 1707, Regimiento de Vitoria nº 19, 1965, Regimiento de Infantería La Victoria nº 28 Plana Mayor Reducida, 1987, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1863-1865, Santo Domingo-Dominican Republic; 1876-1878, Cuba.

Regimiento Segundo de la Victoria nº 39 de Ultramar

Deployed in Colombia & Peru

1815, Regimiento segundo de la Victoria nº 39, 1818, Disbanded, 1818, Regimiento de Victoria Expedicionario, 1818, Regimiento de Vitoria nº 39, 1824, Disbanded.

America. 1815-1824, Colombia, Peru.

Regimiento de Infantería Vizcaya nº 21

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Vizcaya nº 54, 1986, Regimiento de Infantería Mecanizada Vizcaya nº 21.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Wad-Ras nº 55

1877, Regimiento de Infantería Wad-Ras nº 53, Regimiento de Infantería Uad Ras nº 55, 1986, Disbanded.

Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Protectores de Walloon

America.

Regimiento de Infantería Zamora nº 8

1580, Tercio de Bobadilla, c1582, Tercio de las Azores, .1713, Amalgamated with Regimiento de Zamora, 1718, Amalgamated with Regimientos de Mondoñedo and Compostela, Amalgamated with Regimientos Segundo de Guadix and Carmona, 1833, Amalgamated with Regimiento Isabel la Católica, Regimiento de Infantería Zamora nº 8, 1985, Disbanded.

America, 1777, Brazil. Caribbean. 1895-1898, Cuba.

Regimiento de Infantería Zaragoza nª 12

1579, Tercio de Niño, 1713, Regimiento de Infantería Lisboa número 4, 1931, Amalgamated with Regimiento Murcia nº 37, 1963, Regimiento de Infantería Zaragoza nª 12, 1965, Disbanded.

America. 1741-1774, Georgia; 1774-1779, Louisiana 1817-1821, Mexico. Caribbean. 1896-1898, Cuba.

ENDNOTES

1             See Granville Hough, PhD, & HC Hough, Somos Primos, Spanish Patriots in the American Revolution, at http://www.somosprimos.com/hough/hough.htm.

2             Regimiento de Infantería Fijo de La Habana Cuba, at http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/8745/infanteria/ultramar/urfijohabana.htm.

3             Spanish colonization of the Americas, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_colonization_of_the_Americas.

4             For background see William H, Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, & History of the Conquest of Peru; Discovery of Mexico, at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/3088/hist-book2.html, Uniformology, at http://www.uniformology.com/CDlists2004-18.html.

5             See Regimientos de Infantería, at http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/8745/infanteria/regimientos.htm.

6             Spanish Empire, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Empire.

7             William H, Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, & History of the Conquest of Peru, pp. 144-145.

8             Military history of Spain, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Spain.

9            For army development see George Gush, Renaissance Armies: The Spanish, at http://www.myarmoury.com/feature_armies_spanish.html; and Instituto de Historia y Cultura Militar, at http://www.ejercito.mde.es/ihycm/index.html.

10         Prof Sasha Honig, The Presidios of Alto California, at http://www.ca-missions.org/honig.html.

11         Thomas E DeVoe and Gregory JW Urwin, The Regiment of Louisana and the Spanish Army in the American Revolution, at http://www.magweb.com/sample/amr/ed82loui.htm; Texas State Historical Association, at http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/GG/fga10.html; Regimiento de Infanteria de Luisiana, at http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/es%5E1779.html; Frank Howard, Revolutionary War, Pensacola, Florida, http://www.littletownmart.com/fdh/pensacola-war.htm; Uniformes y banderas de las campañas de Menorca en la 2ª mitad del siglo XVIII, http://www.telefonica.net/web2/terronponce/Obras/Banderas/Banderas.htm.

12         For specific unit histories see Regimientos de Infantería, at http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/8745/infanteria/regimientos.htm; detailed regimental histories may also be found from the latter geocities site and also from unit and government sites www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/en/page_538.asp; http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.angelfire.com/co2/muzaraque/cosas/malasp/malasp.htm&prev= /search%3Fq%3DVoluntarios%2Bde%2BCatalu%25C3%25B1a%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGGL,GGGL:2005-09,GGGL:en; http://64.233.179.104/search?q=cache:Sh0gSsrg1KoJ:desobediencia.entodaspartes.org/2.0/article.php3%3Fid_
article%3D203+Regimiento+de+Infanter%C3%ADa+n%C2%BA+8&hl=en; http://home.earthlink.net/~rggsibiba/html/sib/sib2.html, http://www.heraldaria.com/omilitares.php&prev=/search%3Fq%3D,
Caballer%25C3%25ADa%2Bdel%2BEspa%25C3%25B1a%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGGL,GGGL:2005-09,GGGL:en, http://www.correo.com.uy/filatelia/frames/emi_db.asp?idemi=119, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.armada.mde.es/esp/CienciaCultura/Historiay
CulturaNaval/Bandera/fernandovi.asp%3FSecAct%3D07605_02&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%2BINFANTERIA%2BDE%2
BFERNANDO%2BVI%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rls%3DGGGL,GGGL:2005-09,GGGL:en, http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://vial.jean.free.fr/new_npi/revues_npi/17_2000/npi_1700/17_
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