CANADA: 1812


Outline Colonial History

Canada was not created until the 1867 British North America Act (BNA) was passed in Britain's parliament. European colonies in the future Canadian territory were created as shown below.[1] Various wars and military occupations passed without legal, sovereign changes. The provinces of Alberta Saskatchewan, Manaitoba, and the territories of the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavit were all created out of the former Rupert's Land. Additionally, land north of the border shown above the Canadas was incorporated into those provinces, which later became Québec and Ontario. Québec also later gained the Ungava district.

  • English, 1497, Newfoundland (claimed but given no status).

  • French, 1534, La Nouvelle France (St Lawrence Basin).

  • French, 1535, Isle Saint-Pierre, Plaisance.

  • French, 1542-1543, France-Royale.

  • French, 1578, La Nouvelle France. (Acadie, Québec, Montréal, Louisiana, Île de St. Jean (Prince Edward Island), Plaisance, Île Royale (Cape Breton), and Trois-Rivièrs independent colonies in New France.)

  • English, 1583, Newfoundland.

  • French, 1600, Acadie (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton Island).

  • English, 1613, Guy's colony (Newfoundland from Cape Mary's to Cape Bonavista).

  • Scotland, 1621-1632, Nova Scotia.

  • English, 1629-1632, Québec.

  • French, 1640, Plaisance, Labrador.

  • French, 1642, Montréal.

  • English, 1654-1670, Nova Scotia.

  • French, 1663, Île de St. Jean.

  • English, 1668, Rupert's Land (Shore of Hudson Bay '...and land adjacent to all waters flowing into it.').

  • English, 1670, Charter given to the 'Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay' (now called the Hudson's Bay Company); named Rupert's Land.

  • Dutch, 1674-1678, Nova Scotia.

  • French, 1697, Nova Scotia.

  • British, 1713, Nova Scotia (Disputed definition and boundaries of Acadia/Nova Scotia), Placentia part of Newfoundland.

  • French, 1713, Île Royale (Cape Breton Island).

  • British, 1763, Québec, Cape Breton Island (part of Nova Scotia), Labrador, St. John's Island, (Prince Edward Island).

  • French, 1763, Îles Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon.

  • British, 1764, Québec (encorporating the prior separate colonies of Québec, Montréal, and Three Rivers (Trois-Rivièrs).

  • British, 1769, St. John's Island.

  • British, 1774-1783, Québec (Québec, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, including Ontario and Rupert's Land).

  • British, 1784, New Brunswick, Cape Breton Island.

  • British, 1791, Lower Canada (Québec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

  • British, 1799, Prince Edward Island.

  • British, 1801, Red River Colony.

  • French, 1816, Îles Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon.

  • British, 1818, Crown colony of Newfoundland.

  • British, 1820, Cape Breton Island (part of Nova Scotia).

  • British, 1840, Canada East (Québec) and Canada West (Ontario).

  • British, 1841, United Province of Canada (Québec and Ontario).

  • British, 1849, Colony of Vancouver Island.

  • British, 1858, British Colombia (Mainland only).

  • British, 1863, Stikine Territory and Queen Charlotte Islands incorporated into British Colombia.

  • British, 1866, Vancouver Island united with British Colombia.

  • British, 1867, BNA created Canada, by Confederation of the British colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada, which were united as the Dominion of Canada. Alll other parts of British North America accede at later dates.

  • British, 1880, transferred to Canada all British territories and possessions left in North America except Newfoundland.
  • British, 1907, Province of Newfoundland named Dominion of Newfoundland.
  • British, 1931, Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to British dominions.
  • British, 1949, Newfoundland joined Canada.
  • Canada, 1967, The term 'Dominion' officially abandoned.


1          See Index of Colonies and Possessions, at

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